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What is a morpheme?
- The smallest form with a particular meaning.
- Words: tree, sun, leaf
- Meaning to words: -s, -less
What is a simple word?
- Words that consist of only one morpheme.
- Example: chair, great, sun
What is a complex word?
- Words with 2 or more morphemes.
- Compounds: greenhouse, treadmill
- Derivation: meaningless, decolonialization
What is a free morpheme?
- A word by itself.
- Example: "boy" in "boys", "sun" in "sunny"
What is a bound morpheme?
- A piece of meaning that needs to be attached to another element.
- Example: "-s" in "boys", "-y" in "sunny"
What are lexical morphemes?
- Morphemes that carry lexical information. (Words)
- Nouns: sun, leaf, tree
- Pronouns: I, we, heir
- Verbs: go, see, drink
- Adjectives: green, large, sunny
- Adverbs: quickly, slowly
What are functional morphemes?
- Morphemes that carry grammatical information.
- Prepositions: to, at, from
- Conjunctions: and, or, but
- Determiners: a, the, this, those
- Qualifiers: always, often, perhaps
- Auxiliaries: can, will, must
- Affixes: (infixes, prefixes, suffixes
What are allomorphs?
- Varient forms of a morpheme.
- Example: a book, the book; an orange, the orange
What is inflection?
When it adds to the word but doesn't create new vocabulary.
What is derivation?
- When it creates a new word.
- Example: write --> writer; v --> n
What is suppletion?
- When the original word changed to something else.
- Example: "go"'s past tense was "eode" but became "went" which was the past tense of "wend"
What is derivational affixation?
- -al/-ar --> adjective
- -ize --> verb
What is back-clipping?
Gasoline --> gas
What is front-clipping?
Telephone --> phone
What is front-and-back clipping?
Elizabeth --> Liz
What is blending?
- Front: Europe + Asia --> Eurasia
- Back: Cheese + Hamburger --> Cheeseburger
- Both: Breakfast + Lunch --> Brunch
What is zero-derivation?
- When a word has multiple forms (n,v,adj,etc.) but the word itself has no change to it.
- Example: The girl found a comb. The girl should comb her hair.
What is an eponym?
- What the word comes from the person who created it or the place it originated from, etc.
- Example: Sandwich
What is the difference between initialisms and acronyms?
- Initialism: UFO
- Acronyms: NASA
What is reduplication?
- When a part or all of the word/root is repeated.
- Example: lakad --> lalakad; hocus pocus
What is euphemism?
- Words that are said in a more "acceptable" way.
- Example: senior citizens --> old people
What is doublespeak?
- Words like double-negatives.
- Example: real counterfeit diamonds
What is taboo?
- Changing words to make it sound more sociably acceptable.
- Example: breast meat --> white meat
What is reanalysis?
an ewt --> a newt
What are the characteristics of analytic languages?
Each word contains one morpheme and word order is typical.
What are the characteristics of agglutinating languages?
Words consist multiple morphemes and the morphemes are separated within the word.
What are the characteristics of inflected languages?
Words consist of multiple morphemes with no clear breaks within the word.
Hablo, hablas, habla
What are the characteristics of polysynthetic languages?
Agglutination + inflected languages