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2011-12-14 23:50:45

types of words
Show Answers:

  1. What is a morpheme?
    • The smallest form with a particular meaning.
    • Words: tree, sun, leaf
    • Meaning to words: -s, -less
  2. What is a simple word?
    • Words that consist of only one morpheme.
    • Example: chair, great, sun
  3. What is a complex word?
    • Words with 2 or more morphemes.
    • Compounds: greenhouse, treadmill
    • Derivation: meaningless, decolonialization
  4. What is a free morpheme?
    • A word by itself.
    • Example: "boy" in "boys", "sun" in "sunny"
  5. What is a bound morpheme?
    • A piece of meaning that needs to be attached to another element.
    • Example: "-s" in "boys", "-y" in "sunny"
  6. What are lexical morphemes?
    • Morphemes that carry lexical information. (Words)
    • Nouns: sun, leaf, tree
    • Pronouns: I, we, heir
    • Verbs: go, see, drink
    • Adjectives: green, large, sunny
    • Adverbs: quickly, slowly
  7. What are functional morphemes?
    • Morphemes that carry grammatical information.
    • Prepositions: to, at, from
    • Conjunctions: and, or, but
    • Determiners: a, the, this, those
    • Qualifiers: always, often, perhaps
    • Auxiliaries: can, will, must
    • Affixes: (infixes, prefixes, suffixes
  8. What are allomorphs?
    • Varient forms of a morpheme.
    • Example: a book, the book; an orange, the orange
  9. What is inflection?
    When it adds to the word but doesn't create new vocabulary.
  10. What is derivation?
    • When it creates a new word.
    • Example: write --> writer; v --> n
  11. What is suppletion?
    • When the original word changed to something else.
    • Example: "go"'s past tense was "eode" but became "went" which was the past tense of "wend"
  12. What is derivational affixation?
    • -al/-ar --> adjective
    • -ize --> verb
    • etc.
  13. What is back-clipping?
    Gasoline --> gas
  14. What is front-clipping?
    Telephone --> phone
  15. What is front-and-back clipping?
    Elizabeth --> Liz
  16. What is blending?
    • Front: Europe + Asia --> Eurasia
    • Back: Cheese + Hamburger --> Cheeseburger
    • Both: Breakfast + Lunch --> Brunch
  17. What is zero-derivation?
    • When a word has multiple forms (n,v,adj,etc.) but the word itself has no change to it.
    • Example: The girl found a comb. The girl should comb her hair.
  18. What is an eponym?
    • What the word comes from the person who created it or the place it originated from, etc.
    • Example: Sandwich
  19. What is the difference between initialisms and acronyms?
    • Initialism: UFO
    • Acronyms: NASA
  20. What is reduplication?
    • When a part or all of the word/root is repeated.
    • Example: lakad --> lalakad; hocus pocus
  21. What is euphemism?
    • Words that are said in a more "acceptable" way.
    • Example: senior citizens --> old people
  22. What is doublespeak?
    • Words like double-negatives.
    • Example: real counterfeit diamonds
  23. What is taboo?
    • Changing words to make it sound more sociably acceptable.
    • Example: breast meat --> white meat
  24. What is reanalysis?
    an ewt --> a newt
  25. What are the characteristics of analytic languages?
    Each word contains one morpheme and word order is typical.

    kaan rian
  26. What are the characteristics of agglutinating languages?
    Words consist multiple morphemes and the morphemes are separated within the word.

  27. What are the characteristics of inflected languages?
    Words consist of multiple morphemes with no clear breaks within the word.

    Hablo, hablas, habla
  28. What are the characteristics of polysynthetic languages?
    Agglutination + inflected languages