Syntax and Semantics

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Syntax and Semantics
2011-12-15 01:05:51
all about sentences

syntax and semantics
Show Answers:

  1. What are constituents and what are the constituency tests?
    • Constituents: "your friend", "the boss", "my computer"
    • 1. Ability to stand alone
    • 2. Ability to move as a unit
    • 3. Ability to be deleted as a unit
    • 4. Ability to be replaced by a pronoun, proverb, etc.
    • 5. Ability to be coordinated (with conjunctions like and)
  2. What is hyponymy?
    • Words that fit under a bigger category.
    • Example: boiling, frying, roasting, and baking are all a part of cooking
  3. What is polysemy?
    • One word with many definitions.
    • Example: leaf --> leaf of a book, leaf of a tree
  4. What is homonymy?
    • Words that sound the same but have different meanings.
    • Example: eye and I
  5. What is a converse?
    • Words that are opposite, but not in definition.
    • Example: grandchild / grandparent
  6. What is a paraphrase?
    Two sentences that basically state the same thing.
  7. What is an entailment?
    • Two sentences that tell the same point but have a different point of view/focus.
    • Example: Bill killed John. John is dead.
  8. What are implicatures?
    • When a sentence implies another meaning.
    • Example: "We have a child" implies "We have no more than one child".
  9. What is the agent?
    • The subject that does an action.
    • Example: JOHN opened the door.
  10. What is the theme?
    • The object.
    • Example: John opened THE DOOR.
  11. What is the experiencer?
    • The subject that is affected by something.
    • Example: JOHN wants milk.
  12. What is the instrument?
    • The subject that is being used for an action.
    • Example: THE KEY opened the door.
  13. What is the cause?
    • The subject that causes an action to happen.
    • Example: THE SNOW caved in the roof.
  14. What is the benefactive?
    • The object which the action was for.
    • Example: Bill passed the message to me for BOB.
  15. What is the locative?
    • The place of action.
    • Example: KOREA is cold in the winter.
  16. What is the source of movement?
    • Where the movement starts.
    • Example: from PARIS
  17. What is the goal of movement?
    • Where the movement is intended to end.
    • Example: to LONDON
  18. What is the temporal?
    • The time of aaction.
    • Example: She left home THE DAY BEFORE YESTERDAY.