Syntax and Semantics
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What are constituents and what are the constituency tests?
- Constituents: "your friend", "the boss", "my computer"
- 1. Ability to stand alone
- 2. Ability to move as a unit
- 3. Ability to be deleted as a unit
- 4. Ability to be replaced by a pronoun, proverb, etc.
- 5. Ability to be coordinated (with conjunctions like and)
What is hyponymy?
- Words that fit under a bigger category.
- Example: boiling, frying, roasting, and baking are all a part of cooking
What is polysemy?
- One word with many definitions.
- Example: leaf --> leaf of a book, leaf of a tree
What is homonymy?
- Words that sound the same but have different meanings.
- Example: eye and I
What is a converse?
- Words that are opposite, but not in definition.
- Example: grandchild / grandparent
What is a paraphrase?
Two sentences that basically state the same thing.
What is an entailment?
- Two sentences that tell the same point but have a different point of view/focus.
- Example: Bill killed John. John is dead.
What are implicatures?
- When a sentence implies another meaning.
- Example: "We have a child" implies "We have no more than one child".
What is the agent?
- The subject that does an action.
- Example: JOHN opened the door.
What is the theme?
- The object.
- Example: John opened THE DOOR.
What is the experiencer?
- The subject that is affected by something.
- Example: JOHN wants milk.
What is the instrument?
- The subject that is being used for an action.
- Example: THE KEY opened the door.
What is the cause?
- The subject that causes an action to happen.
- Example: THE SNOW caved in the roof.
What is the benefactive?
- The object which the action was for.
- Example: Bill passed the message to me for BOB.
What is the locative?
- The place of action.
- Example: KOREA is cold in the winter.
What is the source of movement?
- Where the movement starts.
- Example: from PARIS
What is the goal of movement?
- Where the movement is intended to end.
- Example: to LONDON
What is the temporal?
- The time of aaction.
- Example: She left home THE DAY BEFORE YESTERDAY.
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