Card Set Information
UAA Gwen Lupfer Johnson Behavioral Neuroscience PSY370
At the peak of an action potential, the electrical gradient of potassium pushes
potassium out of the cell
What type of glial cells myelinate axons in the central nervous system?
What is the result if a stimulus shifts the potential insides a neuron from the resting potential to something closer to zero?
What is the correct sequence of chemical events at a synapse?
Synthesis, transport, release, reuptake
The amino acid tryptophan is the precurser to?
What is not a catecholamine?
Vesicles are located..
In presynaptic terminals
Exocytosis is the process by which neurotransmitters are
Excreted into the synaptic cell
Nicotine directly stimulates receptors in the CNS and at nerve-muscle junctions. These receptors are also receptors for what neurotransmitter?
If a drug has
efficacy, what effect foes it have on the postsynaptic neuron?
Why do cocaine and amphetamine produce similar effects?
Both increase the presemce of dopamine in the synapses
The brain area most often linked to drug addiction is the
In which area of the brain would one find the tectum, tegmentum, superior/inferior colliculi and substantia nigra
Together, the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system make up the ___ nervous system
If one structure is on the left side of the body and another is on the right, they are said to be _____ to each other
Suppose a virus damaged only the ventral roots of the spinal cord, but not the dorsal roots. What would happen to the sensory and motor abilities of the affected area?
Loss of motor control, but preserved sensation
Explaining dwarf hamsters love of alcohol solutions as a function of the fact that they metabolize the drug quickly and avoid getting ill is an example of a _____ explanation
Prefrontal lobotomies were conducted in the USA in an attempt to
treat several psychotic disorders
An electroencephalograph measures:
the average activity of the cells in a given region of the brain
Relative to the size of its other brain structures, a polar bears ___ are remarkably large
Loewi demonstrated that synapses operate by the release of chemicals. He did this by:
Collecting fluid from a stimulated frogs heart, transferring it to another frog's hear and measuring the heart rate
What age group would people be most likely to be alert when watching a late-night movie?
20 year old
What is the principle Zeitgeber for land animals?
A typical, healthy human's body temperature over the course of 24 hours is usually lowest:
in the middle of the night
Because of possible parasite exposure, some studies suggest that people who own a ___ are more likely tohave children who become schizophrenic
A polysomnograph displays
A combo of EEG and eye-movement records
Sleep spindles originate from
interactions between the thalamus and cortex
Input from the eyes to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, responsible for shifting the phase of the circadian rhythm originates from
ganglion cells that are not connected to any cones or rods
Someones shows symptoms resembling schizphrenia, especially the positive symptoms, but is not schizophrenic. Which of the following disorders is most likely?
Substance induced psychotic disorder
It appears from research with cats that one function of the messages from the pons to the spinal cord is to prevent us from
acting out our dreams
One explanation for narcolepsy in humans is
a loss of orexin containing neurons in the hypothalamus
Why will taking a melatonin pill in the evening have little effect on sleepiness?
The pineal gland produces melatonin at that time anyway
Consuming too much salt will trigger ___ thirst. Bleeding or heavy sweating will trigger _____ thirst
an increased preference for salty tastes
When food distends to the duodenum, it releases which hormone?
Chronically high insulin levels lead to increased appetite by
causing a high percentage of available glucose to be stored as fat
If neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels were very high, the effect would be
Research on rats has demonstrated similarities between bulimia and
Those who favor chemical castration as a treatment for sex offenders apprarently believe that testosterone exerts ___ effect on sexual desire
Which of the following is NOT a reason to avoid artificial sweetners?
Research with guinea pigs has linked artificial sweetners to schizophrenia
If you expose a female to too much testosterone early in life, it will cause her hypothalamus to
Develop more like a typical male hypothalamus
Hormones LH, FSH, and estradiol reach a peak
Around the time of ovulation
The amino acid glycine, provides a possible co-treatment for schizophrenia because it
increases the effectivness of glutamate
the results of the sex reassignment in the case of the infant whose penis was accidently removed was that
he decided to adopt a male gender identity during adolescence
The aneriour commissure on average
is larger in hertosexual women than heterosexual men
Apparently, testosterone exerts _____ effects on territory marking in male cats
The branch of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for preparing the body for intense, vigorous, emergency activity is the
sympathetic nervous system
A search for the happiness center in the brain is unlikely to be successful because
brain areas associated with particular emotions vary considerably
What is the best sign your dog is happy to see you?
Their tag wags to the right of his body
Children with a rare condition called ___ are unable to move their facial muscles to make a smile
The reason indiviuals who suffer prefrontal cortex damage often make bad decisions is because they
can't anticipate unpleasantness of likely outcomes
If a monkey wiht low serotonin turnover survives they are more likely to
have dominant status
A person who has developmed a tolerance for alcohol is likely to show a cross-tolerance to
Which category of antidepressant drugs operates by preventing the presynaptic nueron from reabsorbing serotonin and catecholamines after releasing them?
Concerning temperature cycles, SAD patients are to __ as other depressed patients are to __
Prolonged use of antidepressents not only increases the availability of neurotransmitters in the synapse but also
increases the release of neurotrophins
What do the drugs valproate and carbamazepine share in common with lithium?
They block the synthesis of arachidonic acid
The concordance rate for schizophrenia is around __% for monozygotic twins
Explaining dwarf hamsters love of alcohol as a function of fermentation occurring in the grains they hoard in the wild is an example of a __ explanation
In a brain lesion study the dependent variable would be
whether the lesion affects behavior or not
According to David Chalmers, knowing why and how brain activity is associate with consciousness is the
For a group of people the heritablity for a trait is .5. What can be said about the heredity?
Differences account for some of the observed difference for this group of people
As discussed.. the heritablity score for having 2 legs in humans is ___ in many groups of individuals
What is the physiological explanation for why most of us are good at recognizing faces?
humans have a specialized part of the vetnral stream just for faces
Alcohol suppresses the release of ___ the brains main excitatory transmitter
Proliferation is the
production of new cells
Why is it that all neurons in a healthy adult brain have made appropriate connections?
If a neuron does not make the appropriate connections by a certain age, it dies
What is apoptosis?
Programmed cell death - cell suicide
As a rule, all vertebrate neurons develop during an embryological state, amonf the few types that develop in adultdood..
If you cut the optic nerve of a newt what happens?
The fibers gros back and attach to their original targets, resulting in normal vision
Brain imaging studies of blond people suggest that have greater attention to touch and auditory stimulation because
their visual cortex is used for touch and verbal tasks
In hemorrhage, cells in the penumbra
are flooded with excess oxygen
A lesion in the hypothalamus can lead to decreased activity in the cerebral cortex, even if CC is undamaged. The decreased activity in the cortex because of the loss of incoming neurons is called
The function of the neurotrophins is to
promote the survival of axons
the mechanism of fetal alcohol syndrome probably related to
Denervation supersensitivty and disuse supersensitivty are similar in that they both depend on
increased number and effectiveness of post-synaptic receptors
A deafferented limb
has lost its sensory input
the optic nerve is composed of axons from which kind of cell?
According to the Young-Helmholtz thoery, what is the basis for color vision?
three kinds of cones
While focusing on the car in front of you, you notice another car in your peripheral vision. You will probably have a difficult time describing the details of the second car because
more receptors converge their inputs in the periphery
The lateral geniculate nucleus is part of the
Small receptive fields are to __ cells as large receptive fields are to ___ Cells
Blindsight is apparently mediated by what structure?
In the visual system of the mammalian cerebral cortex, the dorsal stream is specialized for detecting __ and the ventral stream is specialized for detecting ____
Joe has suffered brain damage that has left him unable to recognize the faces of his wife and children, although he can identify them by their voices. Joe's condition?
If a kitten is reared with one eye shut, cells in its visual cortex become sensitive to
Only the eye that has been active
In what order does visual info pass through the retina?
Cells in theretina that provide connections with bipolar and ganglion cells are known as
In vertebrate retinas, receptros send their messages
to bipolar cells within the retina
the human condition that corresponds closest to what kittens experience when raised in an environment of only horizontal or vertical lines is
Researchers produced a kitten that could see stationary objects, but was blonf to moving stimuli by
raising a kitten in an environment illuminated only by a strobe light
If two voices differ in their frequency, this means they differ in their
number of waves per second
where are the auditory receptor cells located?
on the basilar membrane
The frequency theory of pitch perception works well for ___ frequences , while the place theory works well for perception of ___ frequencies
Low frequency tones produce maximum displacement
at the apex of the basilar membrane
large diameter pain fibers
carry sharp pain information
Visual imagery is to __ as auditory imagery is to ___
Sweetness, bitterness, and umami receptors operate by
Activating a protein which causes the release of a second messenger
Pacinian corpuscles respond best to
rapid mechanical pressure
Which somatosensory receptor would be most useful for reading Braille?
Which 2 factors determine whether or not there will be a sound shadow?
head size and frequency
What neurotransmitter is released by axons that carry pain information to the brain?
The sensory aspect of pain activates the __ cortex, whereas the emotional aspect activates the __ cortex
the primary taste cortex is known as the
as you become used to aliens in a movie and are able to recognize them in the sequel, it is likely the activity of the __ is __
The current view of how endorphins decrease the experience of pain is that they
block the release of substance P
what are the chances of having a child with at least one dominant gene if both parents are heterozygous?
The notion that the mind and body are different substances is called
According to biologist Ray Coppinger, dogs have smaller teeth than wolves because
early dogs relied more on human trash than killing for food
What is true about Belyaev's domestication of the silver fox project?
Project failed because undesirable white spots appeared on tame foxes' coats
Prior to the work of Santiago Ramon y Cajal what did investigators believe?
the tip of the axon physically merged with the next neuron
What determines the effect that a neurotransmitter has on the postsynaptic neuron?
actions of receptors on the postsynaptic membrane
when a membrane is at rest, what attracts sodium ions to the inside of the cell?
both an electrical and concentration gradient
the miracle of miracle berries is that they
make sour foods taste sweet
what causes excitation of the taste receptors that respond to salty tastes
sodium ions crossing the membrane of the receptor
taking a drug that block acetylcholine receptors would be helpful for a person with myasthenia gravis
activation of the Golgi tendon organs results in contraction of the muscle
What is the name given to the synpase where a mirror neurons axon meets a muscle fiber?
Parkinson's symptoms usually don't appear until 70-80% of the substantia nigra neurons have died
If a new species were found with legs and composed almost completetly of fast-twitch muslces, what could we infer about its behavior?
it could chase prey only over short distances
When an axon releases a transmitter at the nerve-muscle junction, the response of the muscle is to
Movements near the midline of the body, like turning/bending, are controlled by which motor system?
A saccade is initiated by impulses from the
With experience, the motor skills required to drive a car become more automatic over time mostly because of changes in the
Parkinsons diease patients who usually have trouble walking can wlk surprisingly well when they
are following a parade
a physician taps you just below the knee to check a reflec that is based on info from which kind of receptor?
Miracle berries cause sour substances to be represented
in a more dorsal region than normal
what is the most common drug in the treatments for Parkinsons?
a loss of dopamine activity leads to ___ inhibition of the motor cortex and __onset of movement
Symptoms of cerebellar damage resemble those of
Structure composed of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus is the
One effect of an abnormal form of the protein huntingtin on neurons is to
block acetylcholine receptors
The area of the cortex that receives input from the face is adjacent to the area of the cortex that receives input from the foot
After amputation it is possible to feel a phantom limb whenever the
face is touched
Which axons regenerate to a significant degree if cut or crushed?
those in the peripheral nervous system but not in the CNS
Focal hand dystonia, sometimes called "musicians cramp" is caused by
Extreme overlap of cortical representation of the fingers
The enhancement of contrast at the edges of an object is a result of
lateral inhibition in the retina
Suppose light strikes a row of visual receptors, cells 1-20. The ones that experience the least lateral inhibition are those conencted to
the cells on the edges
Studies on conscious decisions regarding voluntary movements suggest that
brain activity for the movement begins before we are conscious of our decisions
The presymptomatic test for Huntingtins disease enables one to predict not only who will get it but
the age of onset
most of the output from the globus pallidus to the thalamus releases
A physcian taps you below the knww to check the reflec based on info from which receptor?
Singing a song throughout the day activates which brain area?