Behavioral Neuroscience

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Behavioral Neuroscience
2011-12-15 01:37:20
UAA Gwen Lupfer Johnson Behavioral Neuroscience PSY370

Biological Psychology
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  1. At the peak of an action potential, the electrical gradient of potassium pushes
    potassium out of the cell
  2. What type of glial cells myelinate axons in the central nervous system?
  3. What is the result if a stimulus shifts the potential insides a neuron from the resting potential to something closer to zero?
  4. What is the correct sequence of chemical events at a synapse?
    Synthesis, transport, release, reuptake
  5. The amino acid tryptophan is the precurser to?
  6. What is not a catecholamine?
  7. Vesicles are located..
    In presynaptic terminals
  8. Exocytosis is the process by which neurotransmitters are
    Excreted into the synaptic cell
  9. Nicotine directly stimulates receptors in the CNS and at nerve-muscle junctions. These receptors are also receptors for what neurotransmitter?
  10. If a drug has HIGH affinity and LOW efficacy, what effect foes it have on the postsynaptic neuron?
  11. Why do cocaine and amphetamine produce similar effects?
    Both increase the presemce of dopamine in the synapses
  12. The brain area most often linked to drug addiction is the
    Nucleus accumbens
  13. In which area of the brain would one find the tectum, tegmentum, superior/inferior colliculi and substantia nigra
  14. Together, the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system make up the ___ nervous system
  15. If one structure is on the left side of the body and another is on the right, they are said to be _____ to each other
  16. Suppose a virus damaged only the ventral roots of the spinal cord, but not the dorsal roots. What would happen to the sensory and motor abilities of the affected area?
    Loss of motor control, but preserved sensation
  17. Explaining dwarf hamsters love of alcohol solutions as a function of the fact that they metabolize the drug quickly and avoid getting ill is an example of a _____ explanation
  18. Prefrontal lobotomies were conducted in the USA in an attempt to
    treat several psychotic disorders
  19. An electroencephalograph measures:
    the average activity of the cells in a given region of the brain
  20. Relative to the size of its other brain structures, a polar bears ___ are remarkably large
    Olfactory bulbs!
  21. Loewi demonstrated that synapses operate by the release of chemicals. He did this by:
    Collecting fluid from a stimulated frogs heart, transferring it to another frog's hear and measuring the heart rate
  22. What age group would people be most likely to be alert when watching a late-night movie?
    20 year old
  23. What is the principle Zeitgeber for land animals?
  24. A typical, healthy human's body temperature over the course of 24 hours is usually lowest:
    in the middle of the night
  25. Because of possible parasite exposure, some studies suggest that people who own a ___ are more likely tohave children who become schizophrenic
  26. A polysomnograph displays
    A combo of EEG and eye-movement records
  27. Sleep spindles originate from
    interactions between the thalamus and cortex
  28. Input from the eyes to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, responsible for shifting the phase of the circadian rhythm originates from
    ganglion cells that are not connected to any cones or rods
  29. Someones shows symptoms resembling schizphrenia, especially the positive symptoms, but is not schizophrenic. Which of the following disorders is most likely?
    Substance induced psychotic disorder
  30. It appears from research with cats that one function of the messages from the pons to the spinal cord is to prevent us from
    acting out our dreams
  31. One explanation for narcolepsy in humans is
    a loss of orexin containing neurons in the hypothalamus
  32. Why will taking a melatonin pill in the evening have little effect on sleepiness?
    The pineal gland produces melatonin at that time anyway
  33. Consuming too much salt will trigger ___ thirst. Bleeding or heavy sweating will trigger _____ thirst
    • Osmotic
    • Hypovolemic
  34. Aldosterone triggers
    an increased preference for salty tastes
  35. When food distends to the duodenum, it releases which hormone?
  36. Chronically high insulin levels lead to increased appetite by
    causing a high percentage of available glucose to be stored as fat
  37. If neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels were very high, the effect would be
    Extreme over-eating
  38. Research on rats has demonstrated similarities between bulimia and
    drug addiction
  39. Those who favor chemical castration as a treatment for sex offenders apprarently believe that testosterone exerts ___ effect on sexual desire
  40. Which of the following is NOT a reason to avoid artificial sweetners?
    Research with guinea pigs has linked artificial sweetners to schizophrenia
  41. If you expose a female to too much testosterone early in life, it will cause her hypothalamus to
    Develop more like a typical male hypothalamus
  42. Hormones LH, FSH, and estradiol reach a peak
    Around the time of ovulation
  43. The amino acid glycine, provides a possible co-treatment for schizophrenia because it
    increases the effectivness of glutamate
  44. the results of the sex reassignment in the case of the infant whose penis was accidently removed was that
    he decided to adopt a male gender identity during adolescence
  45. The aneriour commissure on average
    is larger in hertosexual women than heterosexual men
  46. Apparently, testosterone exerts _____ effects on territory marking in male cats
  47. The branch of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for preparing the body for intense, vigorous, emergency activity is the
    sympathetic nervous system
  48. A search for the happiness center in the brain is unlikely to be successful because
    brain areas associated with particular emotions vary considerably
  49. What is the best sign your dog is happy to see you?
    Their tag wags to the right of his body
  50. Children with a rare condition called ___ are unable to move their facial muscles to make a smile
    Mobius syndrome
  51. The reason indiviuals who suffer prefrontal cortex damage often make bad decisions is because they
    can't anticipate unpleasantness of likely outcomes
  52. If a monkey wiht low serotonin turnover survives they are more likely to
    have dominant status
  53. A person who has developmed a tolerance for alcohol is likely to show a cross-tolerance to
  54. Which category of antidepressant drugs operates by preventing the presynaptic nueron from reabsorbing serotonin and catecholamines after releasing them?
  55. Concerning temperature cycles, SAD patients are to __ as other depressed patients are to __
    • Phase-delayed cycles
    • Phase-advance cycles
  56. Prolonged use of antidepressents not only increases the availability of neurotransmitters in the synapse but also
    increases the release of neurotrophins
  57. What do the drugs valproate and carbamazepine share in common with lithium?
    They block the synthesis of arachidonic acid
  58. The concordance rate for schizophrenia is around __% for monozygotic twins
  59. Explaining dwarf hamsters love of alcohol as a function of fermentation occurring in the grains they hoard in the wild is an example of a __ explanation
  60. In a brain lesion study the dependent variable would be
    whether the lesion affects behavior or not
  61. According to David Chalmers, knowing why and how brain activity is associate with consciousness is the
    hard problem
  62. For a group of people the heritablity for a trait is .5. What can be said about the heredity?
    Differences account for some of the observed difference for this group of people
  63. As discussed.. the heritablity score for having 2 legs in humans is ___ in many groups of individuals
  64. What is the physiological explanation for why most of us are good at recognizing faces?
    humans have a specialized part of the vetnral stream just for faces
  65. Alcohol suppresses the release of ___ the brains main excitatory transmitter
  66. Proliferation is the
    production of new cells
  67. Why is it that all neurons in a healthy adult brain have made appropriate connections?
    If a neuron does not make the appropriate connections by a certain age, it dies
  68. What is apoptosis?
    Programmed cell death - cell suicide
  69. As a rule, all vertebrate neurons develop during an embryological state, amonf the few types that develop in adultdood..
    olfactory receptors
  70. If you cut the optic nerve of a newt what happens?
    The fibers gros back and attach to their original targets, resulting in normal vision
  71. Brain imaging studies of blond people suggest that have greater attention to touch and auditory stimulation because
    their visual cortex is used for touch and verbal tasks
  72. In hemorrhage, cells in the penumbra
    are flooded with excess oxygen
  73. A lesion in the hypothalamus can lead to decreased activity in the cerebral cortex, even if CC is undamaged. The decreased activity in the cortex because of the loss of incoming neurons is called
  74. The function of the neurotrophins is to
    promote the survival of axons
  75. the mechanism of fetal alcohol syndrome probably related to
  76. Denervation supersensitivty and disuse supersensitivty are similar in that they both depend on
    increased number and effectiveness of post-synaptic receptors
  77. A deafferented limb
    has lost its sensory input
  78. the optic nerve is composed of axons from which kind of cell?
    Ganglion cells
  79. According to the Young-Helmholtz thoery, what is the basis for color vision?
    three kinds of cones
  80. While focusing on the car in front of you, you notice another car in your peripheral vision. You will probably have a difficult time describing the details of the second car because
    more receptors converge their inputs in the periphery
  81. The lateral geniculate nucleus is part of the
  82. Small receptive fields are to __ cells as large receptive fields are to ___ Cells
    • Parvocellular
    • Magnocellular
  83. Blindsight is apparently mediated by what structure?
    Superior Colliculis
  84. In the visual system of the mammalian cerebral cortex, the dorsal stream is specialized for detecting __ and the ventral stream is specialized for detecting ____
    • Location
    • Shape
  85. Joe has suffered brain damage that has left him unable to recognize the faces of his wife and children, although he can identify them by their voices. Joe's condition?
  86. If a kitten is reared with one eye shut, cells in its visual cortex become sensitive to
    Only the eye that has been active
  87. In what order does visual info pass through the retina?
    • Receptor cells
    • Bipolar cells
    • Ganglion cells
  88. Cells in theretina that provide connections with bipolar and ganglion cells are known as
    amacrine cells
  89. In vertebrate retinas, receptros send their messages
    to bipolar cells within the retina
  90. the human condition that corresponds closest to what kittens experience when raised in an environment of only horizontal or vertical lines is
  91. Researchers produced a kitten that could see stationary objects, but was blonf to moving stimuli by
    raising a kitten in an environment illuminated only by a strobe light
  92. If two voices differ in their frequency, this means they differ in their
    number of waves per second
  93. where are the auditory receptor cells located?
    on the basilar membrane
  94. The frequency theory of pitch perception works well for ___ frequences , while the place theory works well for perception of ___ frequencies
    • LOW
    • HIGH
  95. Low frequency tones produce maximum displacement
    at the apex of the basilar membrane
  96. large diameter pain fibers
    carry sharp pain information
  97. Visual imagery is to __ as auditory imagery is to ___
    • VI
    • AI
  98. Sweetness, bitterness, and umami receptors operate by
    Activating a protein which causes the release of a second messenger
  99. Pacinian corpuscles respond best to
    rapid mechanical pressure
  100. Which somatosensory receptor would be most useful for reading Braille?
    Messner's corpuscles
  101. Which 2 factors determine whether or not there will be a sound shadow?
    head size and frequency
  102. What neurotransmitter is released by axons that carry pain information to the brain?
    Substance P
  103. The sensory aspect of pain activates the __ cortex, whereas the emotional aspect activates the __ cortex
    • Somatosensory
    • Cingulate
  104. the primary taste cortex is known as the
    insular cortex
  105. as you become used to aliens in a movie and are able to recognize them in the sequel, it is likely the activity of the __ is __
    • fusiform gyrus
    • increased
  106. The current view of how endorphins decrease the experience of pain is that they
    block the release of substance P
  107. what are the chances of having a child with at least one dominant gene if both parents are heterozygous?
  108. The notion that the mind and body are different substances is called
  109. According to biologist Ray Coppinger, dogs have smaller teeth than wolves because
    early dogs relied more on human trash than killing for food
  110. What is true about Belyaev's domestication of the silver fox project?
    Project failed because undesirable white spots appeared on tame foxes' coats
  111. Prior to the work of Santiago Ramon y Cajal what did investigators believe?
    the tip of the axon physically merged with the next neuron
  112. What determines the effect that a neurotransmitter has on the postsynaptic neuron?
    actions of receptors on the postsynaptic membrane
  113. when a membrane is at rest, what attracts sodium ions to the inside of the cell?
    both an electrical and concentration gradient
  114. the miracle of miracle berries is that they
    make sour foods taste sweet
  115. what causes excitation of the taste receptors that respond to salty tastes
    sodium ions crossing the membrane of the receptor
  116. taking a drug that block acetylcholine receptors would be helpful for a person with myasthenia gravis
  117. activation of the Golgi tendon organs results in contraction of the muscle
  118. What is the name given to the synpase where a mirror neurons axon meets a muscle fiber?
    neuromuscular junction
  119. Parkinson's symptoms usually don't appear until 70-80% of the substantia nigra neurons have died
  120. If a new species were found with legs and composed almost completetly of fast-twitch muslces, what could we infer about its behavior?
    it could chase prey only over short distances
  121. When an axon releases a transmitter at the nerve-muscle junction, the response of the muscle is to
    always contract
  122. Movements near the midline of the body, like turning/bending, are controlled by which motor system?
    Ventromedial tract
  123. A saccade is initiated by impulses from the
  124. With experience, the motor skills required to drive a car become more automatic over time mostly because of changes in the
    basal ganglia
  125. Parkinsons diease patients who usually have trouble walking can wlk surprisingly well when they
    are following a parade
  126. a physician taps you just below the knee to check a reflec that is based on info from which kind of receptor?
    muscle spindle
  127. Miracle berries cause sour substances to be represented
    in a more dorsal region than normal
  128. what is the most common drug in the treatments for Parkinsons?
  129. a loss of dopamine activity leads to ___ inhibition of the motor cortex and __onset of movement
    • MORE
    • SLOWER
  130. Symptoms of cerebellar damage resemble those of
  131. Structure composed of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus is the
    basal ganglia
  132. One effect of an abnormal form of the protein huntingtin on neurons is to
    block acetylcholine receptors
  133. The area of the cortex that receives input from the face is adjacent to the area of the cortex that receives input from the foot
    After amputation it is possible to feel a phantom limb whenever the
    face is touched
  134. Which axons regenerate to a significant degree if cut or crushed?
    those in the peripheral nervous system but not in the CNS
  135. Focal hand dystonia, sometimes called "musicians cramp" is caused by
    Extreme overlap of cortical representation of the fingers
  136. The enhancement of contrast at the edges of an object is a result of
    lateral inhibition in the retina
  137. Suppose light strikes a row of visual receptors, cells 1-20. The ones that experience the least lateral inhibition are those conencted to
    the cells on the edges
  138. Studies on conscious decisions regarding voluntary movements suggest that
    brain activity for the movement begins before we are conscious of our decisions
  139. The presymptomatic test for Huntingtins disease enables one to predict not only who will get it but
    the age of onset
  140. most of the output from the globus pallidus to the thalamus releases
  141. A physcian taps you below the knww to check the reflec based on info from which receptor?
    muscle spindle
  142. Singing a song throughout the day activates which brain area?