Solutions, Acids and Bases.txt

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Solutions, Acids and Bases.txt
2011-12-15 07:25:54
chemistry bases acids solutions

chemistry study guide for bases acids solutions
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  1. Solution
    A homogeneous mixture that has the same composition, color, density, and taste throughout
  2. Solute
    In solution, the substance being dissolved
  3. Solvent
    In solution, the substance in which the solute is dissolved
  4. Aqueous solution
    A solution where water is the solvent
  5. Solubility
    The max amount of a solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a given temp
  6. Concentration
    How much solute is present in a solution compared to the amount of solvent
  7. Saturated solution
    A solution that contains all the solute it can hold at a given temp
  8. Unsaturated solution
    Any solution that can dissolve MORE solute at a given temp
  9. Supersaturated solution
    A solution that contains more solute than a saturated solution at the same temp
  10. Acid
    A substance that produces hydrogen ions (H+) in a water solution
  11. Indicator
    An organic compound that changes COLOR in acids and bases
  12. Base
    Any substance that forms hydroxide ions (OH-) in a water Solution; any substance that accepts H+ ions from acids
  13. Strong Acid
    Any acid that dissociates ALMOST completely in solution
  14. Weak Acid
    Any acid that only PARTLY dissociates in solution
  15. Strong Base
    Any base that dissociates COMPLETELY in solution
  16. Weak Base
    Any base that DOES NOT dissociate completely in solution
  17. pH
    A measure of the concentration of H+ ions in it
  18. Polar Molecules
    Polar molecules have a slightly positive and slightly negative end as a result of electrons being SHARED UNEQUALLY
  19. Nonpolar Molecules
    No polar molecules share electrons EQUALLY and DO NOT have oppositely charged ends
  20. Is water Polar or Nonpolar?
    Polar, it dissolves more substances than any other liquid
  21. Why is water known as a universal solvent?
    It dissolves more substances than any other liquid
  22. Identify the parts of a solution
    Solute and solvent
  23. How do you know which substance is the SOLUTE in a solution?
    It's the substance being dissolved And is Usually the substance present in the LESSER amount
  24. 5 teaspoons of salt are dissolved in 2 cups of water. What is the solute? What is the solvent?
    • Salt is solute
    • Water is solvent
  25. List several solvents you encounter on a daily basis
    Paint thinner, spot removers and nail polish are solvents that DO NOT contain water
  26. List several solutes you encounter on a daily basis
    Our bodies contain solutes dissolved in water
  27. All solutions are liquids.
    True or False? Explain
    False. Solutions can be SOLIDS (ex., alloys like brass or sterling silver), or gases (ex ., diver's oxygen tank)
  28. What is an alloy metal?
    Solid solution of various metals
  29. Describe how the metal atoms in an alloy are mixed?
    Metals are melted, mixed evenly, then cooled back to a solid
  30. How do water molecules help sugar molecules dissolve?
    The negative ends of the polar water molecules pull on the positive ends of the sugar molecules
  31. What factors can affect the rate of dissolving?
    • stirring
    • crystal size (surface area)
    • Temperature
  32. List possible ways that phases of matter could combine to form a
    • liquid/liquid
    • solid/liquid
    • gas/liquid
    • gas/gas
    • solid/solid
  33. Do all solutes dissolve to the same extent in the same solution
    No and you can determine this experimentally
  34. Which product has the highest concentration: 100% pure oj from concentrate or 1orange drink containing 10% oh?
    100% pure oj
  35. What happens if a saturated solution is heated?
    It may become unsaturated
  36. Why is energy given off between ions and water molecules?
    New bonds are formed
  37. A supersaturated solution is unstable. Explain why this is so.
    Because changes in temperature causes solute to fall out
  38. Determine which solution is more concentrated: 17g of solute X dissolved in 100ml of water at 23•C or 26g of solute Z dissolved in 100mL of water at 23•C
    solute Z
  39. If a solute crystallizes out of a solution when a seed crystal is added, what kind of solution is it?
  40. Which 4 acids are important for industry? Give their names andAND formulas.
    • Sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
    • Phosphoric acid (H3PO4)
    • Nitric acid (HNO3)
    • Hydrochloride acid (HCl)
  41. Identify the property of bases evident in soaps.
  42. I'd 3 important acids and describe their uses
    • (Answers vary)
    • Acetic acid - food preservatives
    • Carbonic acid - carbonated drinks
    • Hydrochloride acid - digestion as gastric juice in stomach
  43. What ions do bases produce when dissolved in H2O? What are the properties of bases?
    Hydroxide ions (OH1-); feel slipopery, change litmus paper from red to blue, corrosive, cause burns, become LESS alkaline when they react w/ acids; pH is GREATER than 7
  44. What IONS do ACIDS produce when DISSOLVED in H2O? What are the PROPERTIES of acids?
    • hydronium ions H3O1+; sour taste, corrosive, cause burns, turn litmus paper from blue to red, lose their acidity when they react w/ alkaline (basic) materials; pH is LESS than 7
  45. Explain how keeping a carbonated beverage capped keeps it from going flat
    When capped CO2 stays in solution whch keeps the soda fizzy
  46. If a solute crystalizes OUT of a solution when a seed crystal is added what kind of solution is it?
  47. Identify the type of solution you have at 35, C the solute continues to dissolve as you add more
  48. Identify 3 important bases and describe their uses
    • Aluminum hydroxide - color-fast fabrics, antacids
    • Magnesium Hydroxide - laxative, antacid
    • Sodium hydroxide - to make soap and drain cleaner
  49. Predict what metallic compound forms when sulfuric acid reacts with magnesium metal
    Magnesium sulfate
  50. If an acid donates H+ and a base produces OH-, what compound is likely to be prodicedwhen acids react with bases?
    HOH, which is water
  51. Intestinal fluid has a pH of 8. Is it basic or acidic?
  52. Vinegar has a pH of approximately 2.5. Is it basic or acidic?
  53. Pure water has a pH of...
  54. If a solution has a pH of 8.5, does it have more hydroxide ions or hydronium ions?
    Hydroxide ions
  55. What arenuffers and how are they important to health?
    Buffers are solutions obtaining ions that react with acids or bases to minimize their effects. This is important because our blood needs to maintain a pH of of about 7.4
  56. Explain how to make a dilute solution of a strong acid
    You can dilute hydrochloric acid, a strong acid, by adding a small amount of acid to a much larger amount of water
  57. What acid is found in the stomach?
    Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
  58. What is the acid found in car batteries?
    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
  59. What is the active ingredient in Drano?
    Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
  60. When CO2 is dissolved in rain water what acid is produced? What is the pH of rainwater?
    Carbonic acid (H2CO3); approximately 5.6
  61. What acid is found in DNA and soda pop?
    Phosphoric acid (H3PO4)
  62. Explain why a CONCENTRATED acid <acid> is not necessarily a strong acid.
    A <acid> has a large amount of acid dissolved in a solution. A strong acid easily donates H+ ions. A concentrated acid could be a WEAK acid inasution.
  63. Paints varnishes and synthetic clear coatings are _______? These products are designed to protect the surface of an object for the environment. Make a list of 3 examples of items that that haves protective coating that was applied as a solution
    • House paint
    • Nail polish
    • Polyurethane on wood floors
    • Parking lot line marks
  64. Compare and contrast heterogeneous mixtures, homogeneous mixtures, and solutions.
    • HETEROGENEOUS mixed materials are NOT distributed evenly
    • HOMOGENEOUS the particles are distributed EVENLY at the molecular or ionic level
    • SOLUTION is HOMEGEENOUS (has the SAME composition, color, density and taste throughout
  65. Describe how temperature affects the rate of dissolving. Give an example.
    • INCREASING temperatures causes the particles to move faster, which cause solutes to dissolve FASTER.
    • sugar dissolves faster in hot tea than ice tea
  66. Explain the relationship between surface area and rate of dissolving of a solid in a liquid
    a LARGER surface area INCREASES the rate of dissolving since the dissolving of a solid in a liquid occurs at the surface of the solid
  67. Amalgams, which sometimes are used in tooth fillings, are alloys of mercury with other metals. Is an amalgam a solution? Explain
    Yes, one metal acts as the solute while the other metal acts as the solvent