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  1. gastr/o
  2. an/o
  3. appendo/
  4. appendic/o
  5. bar/o
  6. bucc/o
  7. cec/o
  8. chol/e
    bile; gall
  9. cholangi/o
    bile duct
  10. cholecyst/o
  11. choledoch/o
    common bile duct
  12. col/o
  13. colon/o
  14. dent/o
  15. duoden/o
  16. enter/o
    small intestine
  17. esophag/o
  18. gingiv/o
  19. gloss/o
  20. hepat/o
  21. ile/o
  22. jejun/o
  23. labi/o
  24. lapar/o
  25. lingu/o
  26. lith/o
  27. odont/o
  28. or/o
  29. palat/o
  30. pancreat/o
  31. pharyng/o
    pharynx; throat
  32. proct/o
    anus and rectum
  33. pylor/o
  34. rect/o
  35. sialaden/o
    salivary gland
  36. sigmoid/o
    sigmoid colon
  37. -emesis
  38. -lithiasis
    condition of stones
  39. -orexia
  40. -pepsia
  41. -phagia
    eat, swallow
  42. -prandial
    pertaining to a meal
  43. -tripsy
    surgical crushing
  44. alimentary canal
    • 30 feet of muscular tubing in GI system
    • AKA gut; gi tract
  45. 6 organs of the GI system
    • *oral cav *stomach
    • *pharynx *small intestine
    • *esophagus *colon
  46. 4 accessory organs to the GI system
    • *liver
    • *pancreas
    • *gallbladder
    • *salivary glands
  47. Saliva contains:
    • *lubricants
    • *digestive enzymes
  48. functions of the uvula
    • *speech prod
    • *gag reflex
  49. incisors/cuspids/canines
    front teeth that bite, tear, or cut
  50. bicuspids/premolars/molars
    rear teeth that grind
  51. crown
    part of tooth above gum line
  52. root
    part of tooth below gum line
  53. Root anchors tooth to jaw with:
    • *cementum
    • *periodontal ligaments
  54. enamel
    • *hardest material in body
    • *covers crowns of teeth
  55. dentin
    material under enamel that makes up bulk of tooth
  56. pulp cavity
    hollow interior of crown
  57. root canal
    hollow interior of the root
  58. pulp cavity/root canal contain tissue made of:
    • *blood vessels
    • *nerves
    • *lymph vessels
  59. deciduous teeth
    baby teeth (20)
  60. permanent teeth
    32 teeth that begin replacing baby teeth around age 6-20
  61. portions of the pharynx that food enters first:
    • *oropharynx
    • *laryng/o
  62. epiglottis
    cartilaginous flap that folds to cover larynx and trachea so food doesn't enter lungs
  63. esophagus
    muscular tube below epiglottis (abt 10" in adults)
  64. peristalsis
    muscular contractions of esophagus to move food
  65. 3 parts of the stomach
    • *fundus (upper region)
    • *body (main portion)
    • *antrum (lower region)
  66. rugae
    folds in stomach lining that stretch when stomach is full
  67. Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
    secreted by glands in mucous membrane lining of stomach
  68. chyme
    liquid mixture of HCl, gastric juices and food (this is what the stomach breaks the food down to)
  69. sphincters
    muscular valves that control entry into and exit from the stomach
  70. cardiac sphincter
    • *AKA lower esophageal sphincter
    • *keeps food from going backward into esophagus
  71. pyloric sphincter
    • *valve at the end of the antrum
    • *regulates passage into small intestine
  72. small intestine/small bowel
    • *loc'd between pyloric sphincter and the colon
    • *where most of digestion and absorption occurs
    • *approx 20'
  73. duodenum
    • *extends 10-12" from pyloric sphincter to jejunum
    • *where chyme mixes with juices frm pancreas and gllblddr
    • to complete digestion
  74. 3 parts of small intestine:
    • *duodenum
    • *jejunum
    • *ileum
  75. jejunum
    • *middle part of sm. intestine/between duodenum and ileum
    • *approx 8'
  76. ileum
    • *final part of sm. intestine btwn jejunum and colon
    • *approx 12'
  77. ileocecal valve
    connects ileum to colon
  78. colon
    • *AKA large intestine
    • *where most water from the liquid that enters from the ileum after chyme has been proc'd
    • *approx 5'
  79. part of GI tract that extends from ileocecal valve to the anus
    colon/large intestine
  80. cecum
    pouch loc'd in the first few inches of the colon
  81. veriform appendix
    small, worm-shaped outgrowth at end of cecum
  82. 4 parts of the colon
    • *ascending colon
    • *descending colon
    • *transverse colon
    • *sigmoid colon
  83. ascending colon
    extends from cecum to lower border of liver
  84. transverse colon
    2nd section of colon that extends from ascending colon across the abdomen horizontally, toward spleen
  85. descending colon
    3rd portion of colon that extends from transverse colon down the left side of the body
  86. sigmoid colon
    • *4th portion of colon that extends from descending colon to the rectum
    • *S-shaped to bring the tract back to midline
  87. rectum
    • *portion of GI tract that stores feces
    • *leads to anus
  88. anus
    *contains anal sphincter that consists of rings of vol and invol muscles that control evacuation
  89. bolus
    • *formed by mixing of food and saliva during chewing
    • *food ready to swallow
  90. amylase
    • *digestive enzyme found in saliva
    • *begins digestion of carbs
  91. 3 pairs of salivary glands:
    • *parotid glands (in front of ears)
    • *submandibular glands (floor of mouth)
    • *sublingual glands (floor of mouth)
  92. 3 of the functions of the liver:
    • *prod of bile
    • *proc'ing of nutrients
    • *detox
  93. bile
    • *emulsifies large fat globules
    • *produced by liver/stored in gallbladder
  94. emulsification
    process by which large fat globs are broken down into smaller, more easily digested droplets by bile
  95. hepatic duct
    downward duct that bile travels thru from liver to gallbladder
  96. cystic duct
    upward duct that bile travels thru from liver to gallbladder
  97. common bile duct (CBD)
    carried bile into duodenum where emulsification happens
  98. pancreas
    • *connected to duodenum by pancreatic duct
    • *produces/secretes buffers and pancreatic enzymes
    • *an endocrine gland that produces insulin and glucagon
  99. buffers
    pancreatic secretion that neutralizes the HCl in chyme as it leaves the stomach
  100. pancreatic enzymes digest:
    • *carbs
    • *fats
    • *proteins
  101. ascites
    collection/accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
  102. cachexia
    loss of weight and generalized wasting due to chronic disease
  103. dental caries
    cavity/tooth decay
  104. hematochezia
    bright red blood in stool
  105. jaundice
    yellow cast to skin, mucous membranes and whites of eyes caused by deposit of bile pigment due to too much bilirubin in blood
  106. melena
    • *dark, tarry stool
    • *color caused by digestive enzymes working on blood in intestinal tract
  107. polyp
    small tumor with pedicle or stem attachment usually found in nose or colon
  108. pyrosis
    heartburn caused by stomach acid splashing up into esophagus
  109. aphthous ulcers
    ulcers in the mouth of unk cause
  110. esophageal varices
    enlarged varicose veins in the lower end of the esophagus, often related to liver disease
  111. hiatal hernia
    protrusion of the stomach thru the diaphragm and extending into the thoracic cavity

    GERD is a common sympton
  112. pepitc ulcer disease
    ulcers in lower esophagus, stomach, and/or duodenum

    abbrev PUD
  113. anal fistula
    abnormal, tubelike passage from surface around the anal opening directly into the rectum
  114. Crohn's disease
    form of chronic IBS affecting the ileum, and/or colon
  115. diverticulitis
    iniflammation of diverticulum (outpouch off gut), esp in colon, often happens when food becomes trapped in the pouch
  116. diverticulosis
    condition of having diverticulum
  117. ileus
    severe abdominal pain, inability to pass stool, ab distension due to blockage
  118. inguenal hernia
    protrusion of a loop of small intestine into the inguinal (groin) region thru a weak spot in the abs that develops into a hole
  119. intussusception
    part of intestine slipping or telescoping into another section of intestine just below
  120. polyposis
    • small tumors that contain a peticle (stem like attchmnt) in mucous membranes of colon
    • *possibly pre-cancerous
  121. ulcerative colitis
    chronic inflammatory cond that prods numerous ulcers to form on mucous membrane of colon

    aka: IBD/irritable bowel disease
  122. volvulus
    bowel twists upon itself causing an obstruciton
  123. cholelithiasis
    presence of gallstones
  124. gavage
    placing nasogastric tube to provide nourishement
  125. lavage
    using a nasogastric tube to wash out the stomach
  126. total parenteral nutrition/TPN
    100% nutrition provided thru feeding tube
  127. anastomosis
    to surgically create a connection between 2 organs or vessels
  128. choledocholithotripsy
    crushing of gallstones in common bile duct
  129. 'ac' as abbreviation
    before meals
  130. 'BE'
    barium enema
  131. 'EGD'
    • esophagogastroduodenoscopy
    • (visual exam of esophagus, stomach and beginning of duodenum)
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