Hormones from specialized endocrine glands

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  1. Prolactin
    • Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
    • stimulates milk production in mammary glands
  2. Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH)
    • Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
    • increases synthesis of melanin pigment
  3. Growth Hormone (GH)
    • anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
    • promotes protein synthesis
    • stimulates most body cells to grow and divide, esp bones and skeletal muscles
  4. Thyrotropin (TT, or Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, TSH)
    • Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
    • stimulates thyroid gland to produce and release thyroid hormone (TH)
  5. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, or corticotropin)
    • anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
    • stimulates adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids to help the body resist stressors
  6. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
    • anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
    • stimulates game production and, in femals, the maturation of egg-containing ovarian follicles
  7. Lutenizing Hormone (LH)
    • anterior pituitary (adnohypophysis)
    • (females) triggers ovulation and ovarian production of estrogens and progesterone
    • (males) sitmulates testicular production of testosterone
  8. Oxytocin
    • Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)
    • stimulates uterine contractions, initiates labor and triggers milk release by mammary glands
  9. Vasopressin (or antidiuretic hormone, ADH)
    • posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)
    • regulates body/blood water balance by stimulating kidney tubule cells to resorb water
    • increased blood volume helps maintain BP
    • (large amounts), acts as a vasoconstrictor (only in extreme cases of blood loss or dehydration)
  10. Thyroid Hormone (TH)
    • Thyroid
    • mostly thyroxine (T4), with triiodothyronine (t3) stimulates glucose oxidation and basal metabolic rate
  11. Calcitonin (CT, or thyrocalcitonin)
    • thyroid
    • lowers blood calcium levels by inhibiting bone resorption and by increasing uptake of calcium and depostion in bone matrix
  12. Parathormone (or Parathyroid hormone, PTH)
    • parathyroids
    • regulates calcium-phosphate metabolism
    • increases blood calcium levels by stimulating bone resorption, and by increasing kidney retention and intestinal absorption of calcium
  13. Mineralcorticoids (aldosterone, deoxycorticosterone)
    • adrenal cortex
    • regulates mineral salt concentration in extracellular fluids esp Na/K balance (aldosterone's effect on kidneys is most important)
  14. Glucocorticoids (cortisone, corticosterone, hydrocortisone or cortisol)
    • adrenal cortex
    • maintain blood sugar and water levels, metabolize fats, amino acids and proteins into carbohydrates and glucose
  15. Cortical sex hormones (adrogens esp Testosterone; estrogens esp progesterone)
    • adrenal cortex
    • stimulate secondary sexual characteriscs esp in the male (mino source compared to gonads)
  16. Epinephrine (or adrenaline)
    • Adrenal medulla
    • reinforces "fight-or-flight" reaction esp increasing heart and metabolic rate
  17. Norepinephrine (or noradrenaline)
    • adrenal medulla
    • reinforces "fight-or-flight" reaction esp increasing peripheral vasoconstriction
  18. Melatonin
    • Pineal (epiphysis)
    • inhibits release gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) by hypothalamus/anterior pituitary regulating onset of sexual maturity
  19. Thymic Humoral Factor (THF, or Thymosin, or Thymic Hormone)
    • thymus
    • stimulates immunologic competence in T-lymphocytes
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Hormones from specialized endocrine glands

exam 3
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