Hematology

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Author:
maravi80
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123894
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Hematology
Updated:
2011-12-15 19:17:07
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Hematology
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Hematology unit 1
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  1. What is CFU-GEMM?
    Colony forming units-Granulocytes, erythrocytes, monocytes, megakaryocytes.
  2. What percentage of bone marrow is compromised of red marrow? Yellow Marrow?
    50:50
  3. Which areas are the best sites for bone marrow aspiration?
    Iliac crest and sternum
  4. What is the normal M:E ratio?
    4:1
  5. What is the ratio of stem cells to nucleated cells in the bone marrow?
    1 in 1000
  6. What is the approximate blood volume in an adult?
    6L
  7. How long does a red cell live?
    120 days
  8. What is culling?
    filtration -gets rid of older cells and recycles bilirubin, iron, and globin.
  9. What is pitting?
    pulling inclusions off the cell membrane without destroying it; forms spherocytes.
  10. What is the composition of hemoglobin A?
    2 alpha , 2 beta
  11. What is the composition of Hemglobin F?
    2 alpha , 2 gamma
  12. What is the composition of hemoglobin A2?
    2 alpha, 2 delta
  13. What is the composition of Gower 1?
    2 zeta, 2 epsilon
  14. What is the composition of Gower 2 ?
    2 alpha, 2 epsilon
  15. What is the composition of Portland?
    2 zeta, 2 gamma
  16. What is methhemoglobin?
    Hemoglobin with iron in ferric state (Fe 3+) and cannot combine with O2.
  17. What are howell jolly bodies?
    Dna remnants seen in splenectomy patients.
  18. What are schistocytes?
    • fragmented cells
    • see heinz bodies
  19. Which red cell inclusion is associated with lead poisoning?
    basophilic stippling
  20. What is rouleaux and what is it associated with?
    Stacking of red cells and associated with mutiple myeloma.
  21. Acanthocytes
    • abetalipoproteinemia
    • severe liver disease
  22. Drepanocytes
    • sickle cell
    • crescent shape
    • abnormal Hgb S
  23. Echinocytes
    • "Burr cell" associated with uremia
    • abnormal protein and spectrin on cell membrane
  24. Codocytes
    • Bull's eye shape
    • seen in thalassemia
    • due to increase of plasma cholesterol
  25. Heinz bodies
    • denatured hemoglobin
    • G6pd deficiency
    • stained with supravital stains
  26. Bite cells
    On wright stain-heinz bodies appear as bite cells
  27. Pappenheimer bodies
    small beaded inclusions associated with iron loading conditions

    siderblastic anemia

    stain with prussian
  28. Cabot's ring
    • remnants of mitotic spindle
    • megaloblastic anemia
  29. What causes the oxygen dissociation curve to shift to the right? To the left?
    Decrease in O2 affinity is a shift to the right.

    Increase in O2 affinity is a shift to the left
  30. Which inclusion is not stained with Wright's stain?
    Heinz bodies
  31. What is the formula and normal values for MCV?
    MCV=HCT/Rbc X 10

    80-100 fl
  32. What is the formula and normal values for MCH?
    • MCH=HGB/Rbc X 10
    • 27-31 pg
  33. What is the formula and normal values for MCHC?
    MCHC=HGB/HCT X 100

    32-36 %
  34. What does NADH do?
    reduce iron ferric state in methhemoglobin back to ferrous state.
  35. What is the normal size of an erythrocyte?
    6- 8 um
  36. Which pathway provides ATP for red cell metabolism?
    EM
  37. What is apoptisis?
    Programmed cell death
  38. Which hemoglobin are not capable of transporting oxygen?
    methemoglobin, sulf, carboxyhemoglobin
  39. What is the role of spectrin?
    responsible for deformability of cell
  40. What is meant by shift to the left?
    Increase O2 affinity.
  41. What is polychromasia?
    • variation in color
    • seen in reticulocytes
  42. What is anisocytosis?
    variation in size
  43. What is poikilocytosis?
    variation in shape
  44. Which inclusions would be associated with splenectomy?
    Howell jolly bodies
  45. Name the maturation sequence of erythrocytes?
    • Pronormoblast
    • basophilic normoblast
    • polychromatophilic normoblast
    • orthochromic normoblast
    • reticulocyte
    • erythrocyte
  46. Last nucleated stage of RBC maturation?
    Orthochromic normoblast
  47. What % of hemoglobin is sythesized in reticulocytes?
    35%
  48. Pernicous anemia leads to what kind of anemia?
    macrocytic anemia >100fl
  49. What type of anemia is present in hemolysis?
    normocytic normochromic
  50. Bone marrow failure is present in?
    aplasitic anemia
  51. Definite sign of intravascular hemolysis?
    Hemoglobinuria
  52. How many genes are involved in production of alpha chains?
    2 genes
  53. What would result in immediate increase in oxygen delivery to tissues?
    Increase in 2,3 DGP
  54. What is the last stage of red cell which is capable of mitosis?
    polychromatic normoblast (rubricyte)
  55. What state has a pyknotic nucleus which will eventually be extruded?
    Orthochromatic normoblast (metarubricyte)
  56. What is the last stage of red cell capable of making hemoglobin?
    reticulocyte
  57. Name two supravital stains?
    • New methylene blue
    • Brilliant cresyl blue
  58. What are the storage forms of iron?
    Ferritin and hemosiderin
  59. What is the first breakdown product which is formed form hemoglobin?
    globin into amino acids
  60. All blood cells are thought to be derived from what type of cell?
    pluripotential stem cell
  61. Where does most of red cell production take place in the fetus during the earliest weeks of development?
    Yolk sac (first 3 months)
  62. What does extramedullary hematopoiesis mean?
    formation of cells that does not include the bone marrow
  63. What hemoglobin resists alkali and acid denaturation?
    Hemoglobin F
  64. Macrocytes are associated with a deficiency of what?
    Vitamin B12 and folic acid
  65. What is carboxyhemoglobin?
    CO-carbon monoxide
  66. What are the 4 funcitons of spleen?
    • storage
    • filtration
    • immunity
    • hematopoiesis
  67. What would a deficiency fo spectrin or actin do to the red cell membrane?
    cause cell rigidity, see spherocytes
  68. What causes relative erythrocytsis?
    Increase in plasma volume
  69. Which metabolic pathway functions in facilitating the release of oxygen from hemoglobin to the tissues?
    Rapoport-Leubering shunt (increase in 2,3 DPG)
  70. What causes a shift to the left in the oxygen dissociation curve?
    • Decrease: 2,3 DPG, PCO2, temp
    • Increase: Ph
  71. What pathway forms 2,3 DPG?
    Rapoport-Leubering shunt
  72. What is the main function of the hexose monophosphate shunt in red cells?
    • Produce ATP
    • Protects cell against oxidation
  73. When do you see hypersegmentation?
    In Vitamin B12 deficiency or folic acid
  74. What condition are there microcytes?
    • Thalassemia
    • Iron deficiency
  75. What factor is required to make basophils?
    IL-3
  76. What factor is required to make Eosinophils?
    GM-CSF
  77. When do you see an RPI of <2?
    Hypoproliferative and maturation disorders
  78. What does an RPI >2 indicate?
    Bone marrow response is adequate

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