Applications and Case Studies in Clinical nutrition
Medical Termonology Define:
2. ad lib
1. before meals
2. as needed
3. the same as
5. Diet as Tolerated
6. Lean Body Mass
7. Nothing by Mouth
8. Nausea and Vomiting
9. twice daily
What are the differnt types of malnutrition?
1. Marasmus = Energy Malnutrition
2. Kawashiorkor = Protein Malnutrition
3. Marasmic-Kwashiorkor = Protein and Energy malnutrition
What is the Nutrition Care Process?
An organized approch to nutrition intervention and care. Involves: Assessment, Diagnosis, intervention, Monitoring
The health of a mother before conception influences a) __________, b) _________ and c) _______.
d) birth mortality
What is the metabolically active organ that helps develop inside the uterus during pregnancy to exchange nutreints between mother and child?
Fluid-filled ballon-like structure houses the developing embryo/fetus?
What are the BMI ranges in Adults?
<18.5 = Underweight
18.5-24.9 = Healthy
25.0-29.9 = Overweight
30.0-34.9 = Obese Class I
35.0-39.9 = Obese Class 2
>40.0 = Morbid Obesity
What is the difference between ammenorrhea and dysmenorrhea?
Ammenorrhea is the absence of at least thee consecutive menstrual cycles versus dysmenorrhead which involves painful cycles involving abdominal cramps bloating, irritability, headache, and back pain.
How much weight should women gain during pregnancy?
1-2 lbs in the first trimester
1 lb per week in the 2nd and 3rd trimester
What nutrients are most pregnant women deficient in and therefore often need supplements?
Folate and Iron
What are the 3 most common monosaccharides?
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, F?
Bones and Teeth
Resistant to Decay
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, P?
Component of teeth and bones
Involved in enzymes used for energy formation
Maintaining body fluids & acid base
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, Cl?
Electrolyte needed for fluid balance & acid base
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, Mg?
Teeth and Bones
Transmission of nerve impulses
Enzymes in PRO and energy formation
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, Zn?
Activation of enzymes involved in the reproduction of PRO
Component of many enzymes and insulin
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, Ca?
Teeth and Bones
Muscle and Nerve Activity
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, Se?
Antioxidant with Vit. E
Protects body cells from oxidation
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, Cu?
Helps utilize O and Fe
Cholesterol and Glucose utilization
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, Mn?
Formation of body fat and bones
Facilitates many cell processes
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, Cr?
Involved in body;s utilization of glucose and fat
Release of energy from glucose
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, Mo?
Transfer of O from one molecule to the other
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, Na?
Electrolyte needed to maintain normal fluid balance and acid-base balance
Nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, Fe?
Transports O as a component of the PRO hemoglobin found in RBC.
Muscle PRO myoglobin
makes O available for muscle contraction
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, K?
Maintain fluid balance and acid-base
Nerve impulse transmission
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, I?
Compound part of thyroid hormones that help regulate growth, development, and energy for production
What are the fat-soluble vitamins?
Vitamin A, D, E, K
What vitamin enhances the abs of Fe?
How much energy does each macronutrient hold? (gm)
1 gm Alcohol = 7 kcal
1 gm CHO = 4 kcal
1 gm PRO = 4 kcal
1 gm Fat = 9 kcal
What is the AI of total water for males and females? What is the general recommendation from the ADA?
Women 2.7 L
Males 3.7 L
1-1.5 mL/kcal daily
What are the 5 steps of the nutrition care process?
2. Interpret Data
3. Develop a plan of Action
5. Evaluate the effectiveness of the plan
What is the strongest predictor of an infants probable future health status?
Stunted children suffer from what kind of malnutrition?
Chronic protein-energy malnutrition
High intake of what lead to children not having enough iron in their diet?
Milk or Juice
What are consequences of an iron OD?
Which nutrient is used to make neuro transmitters, and most notably, those that regulate the ability to pay attention, which is crucial to learning?
What is the RDA for Iron in children between 1-3 yo, 4-8 yo, and 9-13 yo?
7, 10, 8 mg/day
Which four micronutrients tend to be low in children from vegan families and she be assessed?
What are the important principles of diet planning used in toddlers?
What body parts grow first in adolescents?
Feet and Hands
What much bone mass and body weight is gained during teenage growth?
When does lean body mass increase in males and by how much?
50%, 10-17 yo
The avg percent body fat of teenage girls increases from 16%- ___% over the period of adolescence.
After menarche, what % body fat is needed to sustain a regular cycle of ovulation?
What is the range of the start of menses?
The man age for menarche is about?
What nutrients are teens often lacking?
Iron, Ca, Folate, b6, Vitamin E, A, Fiber
What is the weight classification for the following infants?
Normal Weight Infants
-Low Birth Weight infants
-Very Low Birth Weight
- Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants
-Extreme extremely low-birth-weight infants or micro-preemies
1. >10 lbs
3. 3lb 5oz - 5lb 8oz
4. 1.1lb 10oz - 2lbs 3oz
5. < 1 lb
What percentile are small-for-gestational-age infants?
SGA- Small Gestaional Age
EN- Entral Nutrition
TPN- Total Parenternal Nutrition
What is in pancreatic digestive juice?
What is the MNT for PKU?
PHE restricted diet and tyrosine supplementation
What is the MNT for CF?
High: Energy, Protein
Supplementation: Pancreatic enzyme, Multivitamin, Mineral Supplement
What is the MNT for maple syrup urine?
Diet restricted in isoleucine, valine, leucine
What enzyme is absent in PKU?
What is CF? Signs/Symptoms?
Def: Autosomal recessive congenital metabolic disorder causing abnormal body secretions resulting in increased NA, Cl, K of sweat,excessively high mucus plugging up passageways