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Medical Termonology Define:
2. ad lib
- 1. before meals
- 2. as needed
- 3. the same as
- 4. Diagnosis
- 5. Diet as Tolerated
- 6. Lean Body Mass
- 7. Nothing by Mouth
- 8. Nausea and Vomiting
- 9. twice daily
- 10. 4x/day
What are the differnt types of malnutrition?
- 1. Marasmus = Energy Malnutrition
- 2. Kawashiorkor = Protein Malnutrition
- 3. Marasmic-Kwashiorkor = Protein and Energy malnutrition
What is the Nutrition Care Process?
An organized approch to nutrition intervention and care. Involves: Assessment, Diagnosis, intervention, Monitoring
The health of a mother before conception influences a) __________, b) _________ and c) _______.
- a) fertility
- b) Birthweight
- d) birth mortality
What is the metabolically active organ that helps develop inside the uterus during pregnancy to exchange nutreints between mother and child?
Fluid-filled ballon-like structure houses the developing embryo/fetus?
What are the BMI ranges in Adults?
- <18.5 = Underweight
- 18.5-24.9 = Healthy
- 25.0-29.9 = Overweight
- 30.0-34.9 = Obese Class I
- 35.0-39.9 = Obese Class 2
- >40.0 = Morbid Obesity
What is the difference between ammenorrhea and dysmenorrhea?
Ammenorrhea is the absence of at least thee consecutive menstrual cycles versus dysmenorrhead which involves painful cycles involving abdominal cramps bloating, irritability, headache, and back pain.
How much weight should women gain during pregnancy?
- 25-35 lbs.
- 1-2 lbs in the first trimester
- 1 lb per week in the 2nd and 3rd trimester
What nutrients are most pregnant women deficient in and therefore often need supplements?
Folate and Iron
What are the 3 most common monosaccharides?
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, F?
- Bones and Teeth
- Resistant to Decay
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, P?
- Component of teeth and bones
- Involved in enzymes used for energy formation
- Maintaining body fluids & acid base
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, Cl?
- Electrolyte needed for fluid balance & acid base
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, Mg?
- Teeth and Bones
- Transmission of nerve impulses
- Enzymes in PRO and energy formation
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, Zn?
- Activation of enzymes involved in the reproduction of PRO
- Component of many enzymes and insulin
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, Ca?
- Teeth and Bones
- Muscle and Nerve Activity
- Blood clotting
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, Se?
- Antioxidant with Vit. E
- Protects body cells from oxidation
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, Cu?
- Helps utilize O and Fe
- Brain development
- Cholesterol and Glucose utilization
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, Mn?
- Formation of body fat and bones
- Facilitates many cell processes
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, Cr?
- Involved in body;s utilization of glucose and fat
- Release of energy from glucose
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, Mo?
Transfer of O from one molecule to the other
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, Na?
- Electrolyte needed to maintain normal fluid balance and acid-base balance
- Nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, Fe?
- Transports O as a component of the PRO hemoglobin found in RBC.
- Muscle PRO myoglobin
- makes O available for muscle contraction
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, K?
- Maintain fluid balance and acid-base
- Nerve impulse transmission
- Muscle Contraction
What is the primary function of this essential mineral, I?
Compound part of thyroid hormones that help regulate growth, development, and energy for production
What are the fat-soluble vitamins?
Vitamin A, D, E, K
What vitamin enhances the abs of Fe?
How much energy does each macronutrient hold? (gm)
- 1 gm Alcohol = 7 kcal
- 1 gm CHO = 4 kcal
- 1 gm PRO = 4 kcal
- 1 gm Fat = 9 kcal
What is the AI of total water for males and females? What is the general recommendation from the ADA?
What are the 5 steps of the nutrition care process?
- 1. Assess
- 2. Interpret Data
- 3. Develop a plan of Action
- 4. Intervention
- 5. Evaluate the effectiveness of the plan
What is the strongest predictor of an infants probable future health status?
Stunted children suffer from what kind of malnutrition?
Chronic protein-energy malnutrition
High intake of what lead to children not having enough iron in their diet?
Milk or Juice
What are consequences of an iron OD?
- gastrointestinal bleeding
- toxic shock
Which nutrient is used to make neuro transmitters, and most notably, those that regulate the ability to pay attention, which is crucial to learning?
What is the RDA for Iron in children between 1-3 yo, 4-8 yo, and 9-13 yo?
7, 10, 8 mg/day
Which four micronutrients tend to be low in children from vegan families and she be assessed?
What are the important principles of diet planning used in toddlers?
- Nutrient Adequacy
- Energy Adequacy
- Variety-Wide selection
- Nutrient Density
What body parts grow first in adolescents?
Feet and Hands
What much bone mass and body weight is gained during teenage growth?
When does lean body mass increase in males and by how much?
50%, 10-17 yo
The avg percent body fat of teenage girls increases from 16%- ___% over the period of adolescence.
After menarche, what % body fat is needed to sustain a regular cycle of ovulation?
What is the range of the start of menses?
The man age for menarche is about?
What nutrients are teens often lacking?
Iron, Ca, Folate, b6, Vitamin E, A, Fiber
What is the weight classification for the following infants?
Normal Weight Infants
-Low Birth Weight infants
-Very Low Birth Weight
- Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants
-Extreme extremely low-birth-weight infants or micro-preemies
- 1. >10 lbs
- 2. 8-10lbs
- 3. 3lb 5oz - 5lb 8oz
- 4. 1.1lb 10oz - 2lbs 3oz
- 5. < 1 lb
What percentile are small-for-gestational-age infants?
- Med Terms:
- SGA- Small Gestaional Age
- PHE- Phenylalaine
- TYR- Tyrosine
- EN- Entral Nutrition
- TPN- Total Parenternal Nutrition
What is in pancreatic digestive juice?
- digestive enzyme
What is the MNT for PKU?
PHE restricted diet and tyrosine supplementation
What is the MNT for CF?
- High: Energy, Protein
- Supplementation: Pancreatic enzyme, Multivitamin, Mineral Supplement
What is the MNT for maple syrup urine?
Diet restricted in isoleucine, valine, leucine
What enzyme is absent in PKU?
What is CF? Signs/Symptoms?
- Def: Autosomal recessive congenital metabolic disorder causing abnormal body secretions resulting in increased NA, Cl, K of sweat,excessively high mucus plugging up passageways
- Chronic Progressive pulmonary disease
- -Difficult Breathing
- -Chronic Bronchitis w/ Cough
- Chronic Impairment of digestion
- Poor Growth
- Azotorrhea: Loss of N in feces due to PRO malnutrition and malabs
- Steatorrhea: Passage of fat in the feces due to fat maldigestion & malabs, foul feces
- Bronchiectais: Chronic dialation of Bronchioles and/or bronchi due to obstruction of imflammatory disease
- Emphysema: Lung condition, breathlessness or exertion due to diminished alveolar surfave for gas
What is the cold standard for perterm infants?
Provide Energy & nutrients to meet preterm infants needs & support growth
When does a weak or absent suckling reflex go away?
At least how long do preterm infant need TPN?
What is the max energy concentration of preterm infant formulas and to which breast milk can be fortified?
Parenteral nutrition is required for infants <________ at birth.
What is corrected age?
Chronological age (mos) - number of mos of prematurity
What foods can often been included in a regular diet for kids with PKU?
Low protein foods
What are 6 micronutrients that premature infants?
- 1. water
- 2. EFA
- 3. Iron
- 4. Zinc
- 5. Flouride
- 6 Vitamins D & K
What are the main types of adverse food reactions?
- 1. Chemical contamination
- 2. Histamine Toxicity
- 3. Immune Reaction
- 5. Food Intolerance
What are the 3 most common allergies in children? What are the 4 most common in adults?
- 1. Milk, Eggs, Peanuts
- 2. Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Fish, Shellfish
What is the female infant triad?
- Disordered eating
When should athletes consume water?
- 16 oz - 2 hrs prior
- 8 oz - 15 min prior
- 8 oz every 15 min during event
- 16 oz for every lb lost after
In Kosher Nutrition, Define.
- Treif: Refers to the non-proper food or food ritually unfit to consume. (non-Kosher)
- Pareve: A neutral food, does not contain meet or milk products
- Milchig: Milk products
- Fleischig: Meat Products
Normal eating is ________. It varies in response to your emotions, your schedule, your hunger and your proximity to food.