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the origin of the trapezius includes:
- - external occipital protruberence
- - nuchal ligament and superiour nuchal line
- - spinous processes of c7-T12
the insertion of the upper trapezius is
Lateral 1/3 clavicle & acromion
the insertion of the middle trapezius is
spine of scapula and acromion
the insertion of the lower trapezius is
root of the spine of scapula
upper middle and lower trapezius all can
retract the scapula
the upper and lower trapezius together can
upwardly rotate the scapula
the origin of the splenius capitis are the
- Nuchal ligament
- spinous processes C7-T4
the insertion of the splenius capitis is the
mastoid process and nearby part of the occipital bone. (or occiput)
the origins of the splenis cervicis are the
spinous process T4-T6
the insertion of the splenius cervicis is the
transverse processes of C1-C3
The ACTIONS of the splenius capitis & Cervicis includes:
- -xtention of the neck (Bilaterak Action)
- -ateral flection of the neck (unilateral Action)
- -psilateral of the neck (unilateral action)
the origin f the levator scapulae is
transverse processes of C1-C4
INSERTION OF THE LEVATOR SCAPULAE IS
SUPERIOR MEDIAL BORDER OF SCAPULA
the actions of the levator scapulae include:
- scapular elevation
- scapular retraction
- scapular downward rotation
the reverse action of both the upper trapezius and levator scapulae include
- neck extemtion (bilateral action)
- neck lateral flection (unilateral action)
muscles that stabilize the capital (or Alanto - occipital/ Atlanto-Axial) joints include
- -Longus capitis Anterior and Rectus Capitis Lateralis
- -Longus Capitis and Longus Colli
- -The suboccipital group
The suboccipital muscles consist of
- Rectus capitis posterior major, minor
- obliquus capitis inferior and obliquus capitis superior
innervated by the suboccipital nerve.
nerves which innervate the splenis capitis and splenius cervicis are
the posterior or dorsal rami of the cervical spinal nervers
the medial lateral pectoral nerves innervate the
the long thoracic nerves innervates
the serratus anterior
rector spinae is innervated by what nerves?
dorsal/posterior rami of cervicle. thoracic, and lumbar nerves.
the subcalvian nerve innevates
the insertion of the pectoralis major includes the
the dorsal scapular nerve innervates the
The thoracodorsal nerve innervates the
closer to the trunk
farther from the trunk
condyloid / ellipsoid joint
A BI-Axial Joint MCP joint
MCP JOINT (Metacarpophalangeal joint)
The metacarpophalangeal joints (MCP) are of the condyloid kind, formed by the reception of the rounded heads of the metacarpal bones into shallow cavities on the proximal ends of the first phalanges, with the exception of that of the thumb, which presents more of the characters of a ginglymoid joint. Arthritis of the MCP is a distinguishing feature of Rheumatoid Arthritis, as opposed to the distal interphalangeal joint in osteoarthritis.
A synarthrosis is a type of joint which permits very little or no movement under normal conditions. Most synarthrosis joints are fibrous
Amphiarthrosis is a type of continuous, slightly movable joint
An Uni-Axial joint. ball and socket joint (elbow)
what is a condyle
A rounded protuberance at the end of some bones, forming an articulation with another bone.
- -Condylar process
- -Coranoid process
Temporal Bone Processes
- Mandibular Fossa
- styloid process
- mastoid process
- temporal fossa
occipital bone processes
- Extermal Occipital Protruberence
- Superior Nuchal Line
Sphenoid bone has what processes?
the plane that divides the body into two side parts
The plane which divides the body into front and back parts
The plane which divides the body into top and bottom parts
bending a joint/decreasing anlge (usually in saggital plane)
straghtening a joint/ increasing angle. (usually in sagittal plave.
The tendon attachment at the stable bone; proximal at limbs
the tendon attachment at the movable bone; distal at the limbs.
is a the "fleshy" part of a muscle between th origin and the insertoin.
Muscle apposing the prime mover.
Third class Lever
is the most common lver in the body. Mechanical advantage is speed.
First class lever
- SEE-SAWFulcrum is between effort and resistance.
- Mechanical advantage is BALANCE.
The ball and socket joints are synovial Joints
Fixators stabilize the origin of th prime mover
Flexion of a foot or hand, or of their digits. That is, bending fingers or toes towards the lower surface of the foot or hand. For example, bending the foot in the direction of the plantar surface, as when standing on your toes - as opposed to ones heels
- Even when a whole muscle is not contracting, a small number of its motor units are involuntarily activated to produce a sustained contraction of the muscle fibers. The process gives rise to muscle tone.
- To sustain muscle tone, small groups of motor units are alternately active and inactive in a constantly shifting pattern. Muscle tone keeps skeletal muscles firm, but it does not result in a contraction strong enough to produce movement.
Laminae and pedicles
form arches of vertebral canal
fibrocARTILIAGE CUSHION BETWEEN VERTEBRAL BODIES
what is a spinous process?
thorn shaped medal posterior process.
transverse processes is a
- Lateral posterior processes.
- Forms "T" shape on the spine.
the function of ligaments is
to attach bones to bones
attach bones to bones and allows muscles to move.
Has small body and transverse foramina.
the insertion of the rhomboids is the
medial boarder of scapula
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