Biotechnology Ch 4

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Biotechnology Ch 4
2011-12-15 16:18:51
Diamond Oaks Biotechnology

This is for the biotechnology Ch 4 review for the test at Diamond Oaks
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  1. Central Dogma of Biology
    explains how genetic info is converted into structures an functions.
  2. Gene
    small section of DNA 30,000 in humans
  3. mRna
    messenger RNA, which copies the gene from DNA
  4. _______ proteins are synthesized in a typical cell
  5. Genome
    entire sum of DNA in a cell
  6. 4 nitrogen bases are:
    Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine.
  7. DNA is made up of:
    nucleotides which consits of a phosphate, sugar, and a nitrogen base
  8. Nucleotides are held together by:
    Phosphodiester bonds that are between the sugar and phosphates.
  9. What bonds hold the sides of the DNA molecule together
    Hydrogen between nitrogen bases.
  10. Antiparallel
    DNA oriented in opposite directions
  11. The nitrogen bases are stacked ______nm apart with _____ pairs per complete turn of the helix
    .34nm 10 pairs.
  12. Semiconservative replicantion-
    making two daughter strands from a single parent strand
  13. Medium-
    source of nutrients.
  14. Lysis-
    process of cell being broken down
  15. Prokaryote-
    • -No Nucleous
    • -DNA is in one long circular DNAmolecule (Chromosome.)
    • -Plamid-small ring of DNA floating in cytoplasm.
  16. Transformation-
    when a plassmid which has a "gene of interest" is put into another cell.
  17. Broth-
    Liquid medium
  18. Agar
    Solid medium
  19. Autoclave-
    sterilizer/pressure cooker
  20. Eukaryotic DNA is
    packaged into chromosomes.
  21. Viral DNA
    does not have cellular structures
  22. Bacteriophage-
    Virus that attacks bacteria
  23. Gene therapy and viruses-
    use of viruses as vectors to go and infiltrate bad cells and give them good genes to correct a problem.
  24. Steps to genetic engineering
    • 1. Identification of the molecule of interest.
    • 2. Isolation of gene.
    • 3. Transforming or manipulation of DNA.
    • 4. Harvesting the new product.
  25. rDNA technology-
    taking a gene of interest and putting it into a cell to have it express that trait or protein.
  26. Site specific mutagenesis-
    • The process of inducing changes in certain sections of a particular DNA code to enhance or improve the proteins functions.
    • Ex: Cold Water Tide