Cellular Biology

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Cellular Biology
2011-12-16 19:19:56
biology cells cell theory cellular

Biology - Unit 1: Cellular Biology
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  1. Cell Theory
    1. All living thingsare composed of one or more cells.

    2. Cells are the smallest unit of life.

    3. All cells arise from the division of other cells.
  2. Simple Microscope
    Uses lights & a single lens.

    • Advantages: Clear Image - less blurry
    • Disadvantage: Limited magnification
  3. Compound Microscope
    Uses light & multiple lenses.

    • Advantages: Higher magnification
    • Disadvantages: More blurring/distortion of the image.
  4. Transmission Electron Microscope
    Uses a beam of electrons that passes through a thin sample of a speciman.

    • Magnification up to 7000 times
    • Resolution up to 0.2nm
  5. Scanning Electron Microscope
    Reflects a beam of electrons off the surface of a thick sample or even whole piece of an animal. Uses magnets to focus the beam at a fine point. Produces 3D images.

    • Magnifies up to 300,000 times
    • Resoultion up to 10nm
  6. Parts of a Plant Cell
    • Cell Membrane
    • Cell Wall
    • Vacuole
    • Chloroplast
    • Golgi Complex
    • Ribosomes
    • Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Mitochondria
    • Nucleus
    • Nucleal Envelope
    • Nuclear Pore
    • Cytoplasm
  7. Parts of an Animal Cell
    • Cell Membrane
    • Nucleus
    • Nuclear Envelope
    • Nuclear Pore
    • Nucleolous
    • Cytoplasm
    • Mitochondria
    • Golgi Complex
    • Vacuole
    • Lysosomes
    • Ribsomes
    • Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
  8. Ribosomes
    Produces proteins - enzymes
  9. Golgi Complex
    Changes proteins & fats & packages them into vesicles
  10. Cytolplasm
    Jelly-like substance within the cell where organelles are suspended
  11. Nucleus
    Control center - DNA/RNA (genetic material)
  12. Nucleolus
    Produces ribosomes
  13. Nuclear Membrane/Envelope
    Porous, but selective - surrounds nucleous.
  14. Cell Membrane
    Separates cell contents
  15. Mitochondria
    Turns food into ATP (energy for the cell)
  16. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Produces proteins (has ribosomes attached)
  17. Smooth Endplasmic Reticulum
    Produces fat (no ribosomes attached)
  18. Vacuole
    Fluid-filled sacs in the cell that apply turgor pressure to the cell wall, causing it to be strong & rigid
  19. Cell Wall
    Strong/Rigid - surrounds entire cell
  20. Chloroplast
    Turns sugars into ATP - green in colour
  21. Lysosomes
    • Contain proteins
    • Suicide organelle - destroys cell when attacked by viruses/bacteria
  22. Magnification
    The ability of a lens to englarge the image of a sample
  23. Resolution
    Refers to the amount of detail when viewing the image of a sample - the sharpness or blurriness
  24. Characteristics of Living Things
    Obtain & use energy to power activities such as movement & growth.

    Maintain a constant internal environment.


    Made of cells
  25. Define: Element
    Pure substances made up of a single type of atom.
  26. Define: Atomic Number
    The number of protons in the nucleus.
  27. Define: Atom
    Tiny particles, the smallest unit in chemistry, that contain protons, neutrons, and electrons.
  28. Define: Compound
    Molecules that contain atoms of different elements.
  29. Define: Ionic Bond
    The attraction between positive and negative ions in an ionic compound.
  30. Define: Ion
    An atom that is electrically charged by gaining or losing electrons.
  31. Covelant Bond
    A bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms.
  32. Hydrogen Bond
    Attraction between highly polar molecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms.
  33. Acids
    • Taste: Sour
    • Feel: Not Slippery
    • Litmus Test: Changed paper
    • pH: Under 7
    • Examples: Hydrochloric Acid // Sulfuric Acid
  34. Bases
    • Taste: Bitter
    • Feel: Slippery
    • Litmus Test: Changed paper
    • pH: Above 7
    • Examples: Sodium Hydroxide // Ammonia
  35. Buffers
    Buffer: a solution containing chemicals that can neutralize small amounts of acids and bases.

    Carbonic Acid Buffer: contains equal concentrations of carbonic acid molecules and bicarbonate ions.
  36. How does carbonic acid buffer work in human blood?
    How: Carbonic acid will neutralize small amounts of base that may enter the blood stream and bicarbonate ion will neutralize small amounts of acid that enter the blood stream.

    Why: When your digestive system absorbs acids from fruits and other foods into the blood stream, the pH level of your blood lowers to more acidic level. This can be dangerous, so the buffers compensate for this.
  37. Solute
    A dissolvable substance.

    ie: sugar
  38. Solvent
    A dissolving substance

    ie: water
  39. Functional Groups
    • Hydroxy: Polar hydrogen bonds
    • Carboxyl: Polar acidic hydrogen bond
    • Amino: Polar
    • Sulfhydrate: Polar (what you smell when you burn your hair)
    • Phosphate: Polar
  40. Macromolecules (large molecules)
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic Acids
  41. Carbohydrates
    • What: Molecules containing hydrogen and oxygen.
    • Uses: Source of energy.

    How: Produced by plants and cyanobateria through photosynthesis.

    Examples: Simple sugars (glucose, galactose, ribose, & fructose
  42. Lipids
    What: Organic compounds containing non polar covelant carbon/hydrogen bonds. (fat soluble/hydrophobic) Three fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule.

    • Examples:Waxes, Phospholipids
  43. Nucleic Acids
    What: DNA/RNA - store genetic information about the structures of proteins.

    Example: Nucleotides
  44. Proteins
    What: Unbranched polymers of amino acids.

    Examples: Amino Acids // Enzymes
  45. Define: Enzymes
    A protein that speeds up chemical reactions

    • Main Functions:
    • - act as a catalyst (speeds up chemical reactions)
    • - control all chemical reactions in the cell
  46. Define: Ativation Energy
    Energy required for chemical reactions to occur.
  47. Define: Competitive Inhibitor
    Similar to the true substrate, and actually fit into part of the active site.
  48. Define: Non-Competitive Inhibitor
    Chemically different from the substrate, and attach to another part of the enzyme.
  49. Affects of temperature & pH on enzymes
    Temperature: if the temperature rises above 10 C, the rate of the enzyme controlled reaction will double. (Only if the temperature remains below 50 C). Enzymes denature above 50 C.

    pH: Most enzymes in the body work best at a pH of 7 (neutral). Pepsin works best in an acidic environment, such as the stomach. It wouldn't be beneficial in an environment with a neutral pH.
  50. Define: Passive Transport
    The spontaneous diffusion of a substance across a membrane without the help of cellular energy.
  51. Define: Diffusion
    The tendency of molecules to spread into any available space.
  52. Define: Facilitated Diffusion
    A type of passive transport that allows substances to cross the membrane with the assistance of special transport proteins.
  53. Define: Osmosis
    A type of passive transport in which water diffuses from hypotonic solution (low solute concentration) to hypertonic solution (high solute concentration).
  54. Define: Hypertonic
    A solution that has a higher solute concentration than some other solutions.
  55. Define: Hypotonic
    A solution that has a lower solute concentration than some other solutions.
  56. Define: Isotonic
    A solution with equal solute concentration.
  57. Define: Bulk Transport
    The movement of large quantitites of materials into or out of a cell.
  58. Materials that pass through the cell membrane using simple diffusion
  59. Materials that pass through the cell membrane using active transport
    • Glucose
    • Calcium
  60. Explain the difference between active transport and passive transport
    Active Transport describes what happens when a cell uses energy to transport something.

    Passive Transport describes what happenes when a cell transports something without the use of energy.
  61. Two forms of Bulk Transport
    • Endocytosis (Phagocytosis & Pinocytosis)
    • Cell eating/Drinking - large amounts of food are engulfed by the cell membrane and absorbed by the cell.

    • Exocytosis
    • Large amounts of particles are excreted from the cell
  62. Define: Photosynthesis
    • Carbon Dioxide // Water // Light -hits chlorophyll- produces Glucose & Oxygen. Carried out in plant cells.
  63. Define: Cellular Respiration
    • Process when food is broken down by the body's cells to produce energy in the form of ATP. Carried out in every cell and is important for daily living.
  64. Why is it possible for organisms to carry out photosynthesis and cellular respiration but not photosynthesis only
    Photosynthesis requires carbon dioxide which is made through the exhaling of oxygen. In order to get the exhaled or waste air, there first needs to be cellular respiration creating the carbon dioxide.
  65. Define: Aerobic Cellular Respiration
    Cellular respiration involving oxygen. Occurs in two stages: glycolosis & oxidative respiration.

    Glycolosis: a series of 10 enzyme-catalyzed reactions occurring in the cytoplasm -> one molecule of glucose is converted into 2 pyruvate molecules & 2 ATP molecules.

    Oxidative: Occurs in the mitochondria and uses two pyruvate from glycolosis and oxygen to produce 6 molecules of carbon dioxide & 32 ATP
  66. Anaerobic Cellular Respiration
    The act of cellular respiration without oxygen.

    When oxygen is not available, organisms still produce ATP from glucose by way of fermentation - the pyruvate from glycolosis are converted into lactic acid or ethonal.
  67. Define: Fermentation
    • Two types of fermentation - Ethanol and Lactate
  68. Ethanol Fermentation
    Occurs in the cytoplasm and uses pyruvate produced from glycolysis to make ethonal and carbon dioxide.

    Practical Uses: breads, wines, beer, soy sauce.In bread, yeast cells ferment the glucose from the flour to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide, which causes the bread to rise.
  69. Lactate Fermentation
    Occurs in some bacteria and in the muscles of animals when they need energy faster than the blood can supply oxygen. Begins with glycolosis producing pyruvate from glucose, but a reaction in the cytoplasm converts the pyruvate into lactate. The lactate that builds causes sore, stiff muscles.

    Lactate can be converted back to pyruvate once the necessary oxygen is returned to the body - oxygen debt: panting/breathing heavily.