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2009-10-10 17:35:53
Exam 2

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  1. What is an organic molecule?
    • Molecule containing both carbon and hydrogen.
    • Ex. CH4, C6H12O6
  2. What is an inorganic molecule?
    • Molecule not containing both carbon and hydrogen (could have one or the other but not both).
    • EX. NaCl, H2O, CO2
  3. What is the structure and function of proteins?
    • Consist of long, complex chains of amino acids.
    • Have many functions: structure, transport, enzyme, receptor, exotoxins, "communication", (hormone, storage)
  4. What are the 4 major macromolecules?
    Proteins, Carbohydrates, Nucleic acids, Lipids
  5. What is the structure and function of nuclein acids?
    • Composed of long chainns of nucleotides
    • 2 types:
    • DNA is genetic material that makes up the chromosome
    • RNA functions in the construction of proteins from the "instructions" present in the code of the DNA
  6. What is the structure and function of carbohydrates?
    • Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates, the building blocks
    • EX. C6H12O6
    • Disaccharides are double sugars (2 simple sugars bonded together)
    • EX. Sucrose
  7. What is the structure and function of lipids?
    • Made up of glycerol and up to 3 long-chain fatty acids.
    • Serve as energy storage source.
  8. What are the 4 levels of protein structure?
    • 1. primary structure: amino acid sequence
    • 2. secondary structure: regional folding of sections of the proteins; 2 possible motifs, alpha-helix (coils) and beta-pleated sheets (accordian folds)
    • 3. tertiary structure: overall folding of the protein
    • 4. quaternary structure: proteins is made of 2 or more polypeptide units
    • Ex. hemoglobin
  9. What is the general structure of a carbohydrate?
  10. Describe what happens during the denaturation process.
    It changes the shape of the molecule.
  11. What is the difference between a simple lipid and a complex lipid?
    • Simple lipids are made up of glycerol and up to 3 long-chain fatty acids.
    • Complex lipids have other elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur as part of the structure.
  12. What is the structure and function of an enzyme?
    • Structure: Apoenzymene-always present
    • Function: biological catalysts that brings about a chemical change while remaining unchanged themselves
  13. What is a substrate?
    The substance upon which an enzyme reacts.
  14. What is a product?
    What the substrate is changed into.
  15. What factors influence enzyme function?
    Temperature, pH, concentration of the substrate, enzyme inhibitor
  16. Describe the enzyme reaction.
    S+E-> S-E-> P-E-> E+P
  17. What is the basic structure of an amino acid?