Card Set Information
What is an organic molecule?
Molecule containing both carbon and hydrogen.
Ex. CH4, C6H12O6
What is an inorganic molecule?
Molecule not containing both carbon and hydrogen (could have one or the other but not both).
EX. NaCl, H2O, CO2
What is the structure and function of proteins?
Consist of long, complex chains of amino acids.
Have many functions
: structure, transport, enzyme, receptor, exotoxins, "communication", (hormone, storage)
What are the 4 major macromolecules?
Proteins, Carbohydrates, Nucleic acids, Lipids
What is the structure and function of nuclein acids?
Composed of long chainns of nucleotides
DNA is genetic material that makes up the chromosome
RNA functions in the construction of proteins from the "instructions" present in the code of the DNA
What is the structure and function of carbohydrates?
Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates, the building blocks
Disaccharides are double sugars (2 simple sugars bonded together)
What is the structure and function of lipids?
Made up of glycerol and up to 3 long-chain fatty acids.
Serve as energy storage source.
What are the 4 levels of protein structure?
1. primary structure
: amino acid sequence
2. secondary structure
: regional folding of sections of the proteins; 2 possible motifs, alpha-helix (coils) and beta-pleated sheets (accordian folds)
3. tertiary structure
: overall folding of the protein
4. quaternary structure
: proteins is made of 2 or more polypeptide units
What is the general structure of a carbohydrate?
Describe what happens during the denaturation process.
It changes the shape of the molecule.
What is the difference between a simple lipid and a complex lipid?
Simple lipids are made up of glycerol and up to 3 long-chain fatty acids.
Complex lipids have other elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur as part of the structure.
What is the structure and function of an enzyme?
: Apoenzymene-always present
: biological catalysts that brings about a chemical change while remaining unchanged themselves
What is a substrate?
The substance upon which an enzyme reacts.
What is a product?
What the substrate is changed into.
What factors influence enzyme function?
Temperature, pH, concentration of the substrate, enzyme inhibitor
Describe the enzyme reaction.
S+E-> S-E-> P-E-> E+P
What is the basic structure of an amino acid?