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What is an organic molecule?
- Molecule containing both carbon and hydrogen.
- Ex. CH4, C6H12O6
What is an inorganic molecule?
- Molecule not containing both carbon and hydrogen (could have one or the other but not both).
- EX. NaCl, H2O, CO2
What is the structure and function of proteins?
- Consist of long, complex chains of amino acids.
- Have many functions: structure, transport, enzyme, receptor, exotoxins, "communication", (hormone, storage)
What are the 4 major macromolecules?
Proteins, Carbohydrates, Nucleic acids, Lipids
What is the structure and function of nuclein acids?
- Composed of long chainns of nucleotides
- 2 types:
- DNA is genetic material that makes up the chromosome
- RNA functions in the construction of proteins from the "instructions" present in the code of the DNA
What is the structure and function of carbohydrates?
- Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates, the building blocks
- EX. C6H12O6
- Disaccharides are double sugars (2 simple sugars bonded together)
- EX. Sucrose
What is the structure and function of lipids?
- Made up of glycerol and up to 3 long-chain fatty acids.
- Serve as energy storage source.
What are the 4 levels of protein structure?
- 1. primary structure: amino acid sequence
- 2. secondary structure: regional folding of sections of the proteins; 2 possible motifs, alpha-helix (coils) and beta-pleated sheets (accordian folds)
- 3. tertiary structure: overall folding of the protein
- 4. quaternary structure: proteins is made of 2 or more polypeptide units
- Ex. hemoglobin
What is the general structure of a carbohydrate?
Describe what happens during the denaturation process.
It changes the shape of the molecule.
What is the difference between a simple lipid and a complex lipid?
- Simple lipids are made up of glycerol and up to 3 long-chain fatty acids.
- Complex lipids have other elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur as part of the structure.
What is the structure and function of an enzyme?
- Structure: Apoenzymene-always present
- Function: biological catalysts that brings about a chemical change while remaining unchanged themselves
What is a substrate?
The substance upon which an enzyme reacts.
What is a product?
What the substrate is changed into.
What factors influence enzyme function?
Temperature, pH, concentration of the substrate, enzyme inhibitor
Describe the enzyme reaction.
S+E-> S-E-> P-E-> E+P
What is the basic structure of an amino acid?