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How is stereotypes related to workforce diversity?
- Steoreotype is a major barrier to valuing diversity because it is the tendency to generalize about people in a certain social category and ignore variations among them which is a common workplace stereotype based on gender, age, race or even ethnicity.
- it can have a negative effect on how individuals are treated in organizations
What is workforce diversity?
It refers to differences among employees or potential recruits in characteristics such as gender, race, age or cultural background
What is the problem organizations are having with workforce diversity?
The workforce is becoming more diverse and there is a growing recognition that many organizations have not successfully managed workforce diversity such as within gender, national origin or age
What is happening to this changing workplace?
The canadian population and labor force is becoming increasingly multicultural and multethnic and with the labour pool changing, many organizations are seeking to recuit more representatively from this pool to mirror the markets
What is changing among people in terms of valuing diversity?
In the past people simply tolerated diversity or assist them to fit in but now there is an increased awareness that diversity and its management can yield strategic and competitive advantages which include improved problem solving and creativity
What is happening/changing in gender stereotypes because of workforce diversity?
- women are underrepresented in managerial and administrative jobs which is why they remain significantly invisible in top-level management positions since successful manager qualiies seems as more similiar to men than women but there seems to be a shift as women are begining to see themselves as possessing same attitudes and characteristics as men
- However women in successful traditional men jobs seem to be less liked and these stereotypes are detrmintal to their hiring and development, promotion as well as salary.
What is happening with age stereotypes?
- People have the tendency to believe that a person's physical, psychological and intellectual capabilities based on their age geneartion so older works are seen to have less capacity for performance and less productive, creative and capable under pressure than younger workers
- This is inaccurate but age stereotypes have less effect when there is good info about the capacitiies of a particular employee in question
How do you manage workforce diversity?
- You should ensure that the workforce reflects the diversity canada's population like selecting enough minority to get them beyond token status
- To encourage teamwork so minority and majority work together and stop relying on hearsay and second hand opinions of these stereotypes
- Ensure that those making career decisions about employees have accurate info about them
- Train people to be aware of stereotypes (diversity training and plan awareness and skills training to resolve intercultural conflict)
what are some benefits of diversity as a business issue?
- Diversity helps attract and retain well qaulified employees
- It helps better understand diverse customers
- Lower turnover costs of losing women, minority, older to the competition
What are the problems with diversity training programs and how do you solve it?
The problem is that it can cause disruption and bad feelings when all they do is get people to open up and generate stereotypes so to fix this, awareness training should be accompanied by skills training that is relevant to the particular needs of the organization
What is perceived organizational support? (POS)
- It is employee's general belief that their organization values their contributiona dn cares about their well being
- When an employee has positive POS, they believe that their organization will provide assistance when it is needed and will in return care about the organization's welfare and help them achieve their objectives as well as feel a greater sense of purpose and belonging to the organization and less likely to feel strain symptoms like fatigue, anxiety and will be more committed to work
How do you increase an employee's POS?
- Supervisors function as representatitives of the organization so through their actions and decisions, they can affect how an employee feels in terms of POS
- other factors that affect post is 1) fairness 2) organizational rewards and 3) job conditions
Are emploment interviews a valid selection device? Are there any perceptual baises?
- An interview is a valid selection device although it is far from perfectly accurate, especially when it is unstructured
- some biases that threaten the validity of the interview are contrast effects, central tendency, halo effect and similiar to met effect
What is the Halo effect?
- It is when the rating of an individual on one trait or characteristic tends to color the ratings on other traits/characteristics
- The rater fails to perceive differences within ratees
- The halo effect tends to be organized around central traits that the rater considers important
What is central tendency?
- It is the tendency to assign most ratees to middle range job performance categories
- The extremes of the rating categories are not used
What is the similiar-to-me effect?
- The rater gives more favourable evaluations to people who are simliar to the rater in terms of background or attitudes
- Stems from a tendency to view our own performance, attitudes and background as "good"
- Raters with diverse employees should be especially concerned about this error
What is ethics in organizations?
- Ethics can be defined as systematic thinking about the moral consequences of decisions
- Moral consequences can be framed in terms of the potential for harm to any stakeholders in the decision
- stakeholders are poeple inside or outside of an organization who have the potential to be affected by organizational decisions
What are some perceptions in the employment interview?
- The interviewer tends to compare applicants to a stereotype of the ideal application which is only good if they have a clear understanding of the nature of job and kind of person who will do well in it
- Interviewers tend to exhibit primacy reaction like resume before interview can exaggerate influence on the interview outcome
- Tendency to give less important to positive info but more impact on negative info
- contrast effect where they compare with the last job applicant, leading to exaggerated differences
How do you fix perceptions in the emploment interview?
- You can fix this by having a structures interview that involves four dimensions
- 1) evaluation standardization (numeric scoring)
- 2) question sophistication (job related behavioural questions and situational questions)
- 3) question consistency (same order and same questions)
- 4) rapport building (interviewer does not ask personal questions that are unrelated to the job)
What is signalling theory?
- It says that job applicants interpret their recruitment experiences as cues or signals about what it is like to work in an organization
- so how job applicants are treated during the recruitment and selection process influence their perception towrads the oganization and their liklihood to accept a job offer
What is organizational justice theory?
It's a theory that forms perceptions towards organizations based on the selection tests they are required to complete
What is the difference between objective and subjective measures? which do organizations use most often?
- objective measures do not invovle substantial degree of human judgment but is harder as you move up the org hierarchy since it is usually contaminated by situational factors
- organizations often rely on subjective measueres of effectiveness which is often ineffective because employee's job cannot be monitored at all time so there is a lot of ambiguity and inaccurarcy
What are rater errors and name them
- Rater errors is when subjective performance is susceptible to perceptual biases
- 1) leniency
- 2) harshness
- 3) central tendency
- 4) Halo effect
- 5) similiar to me effect
What are some causes of unethical behaviour?
- 1) Gain: temptation to do unethical activities especially if no punishment is expected
- 2) Role conflict: when our bureaucratic role as an organizational employee is at odds with our role as the member of a profession which we resolve in an unethical way
- 3) Competition: stiff competition for scarce resources can stimulate unethical behaviour and if there is also no competition, you also have strong temptation because you have opportunity for large gains w/o market checks and balances
- 4) Personality: cynical people and people who are morally disengaged will be more likely to do unethical matters
- 5)organizational and industry culture: aspects of the org culture can influence ethics like presence of role models (if they reward unethical behaviour), the cultural greed (enron) or conditions under which corporations have vague codes that have negative effect on ethical culture
What is whistle blowing? Why does it not always work because of current organizational structure?
- Whistle blowing occurs when a current or former organizational member discloses illegitimate practices to some person or org that may be able to take action to correct these practices
- Companies depend on open door policies rather than specific channels and procedures which is not the best way to encourage this because they will not want to be singled out for their courage to speak up under conditions of intense pressure to remain silent
When is sexual harassment most prevelent?
- Sexual harassmenet stems from the abuse of power and perpetutation of a gender power imbalance in an unethical manner
- The most sever ones are done by managers but the most frequent is by co-workers who impose themselves on people who cannot afford to lose their job and is more prevelent in hostile work environements and can lower productivity, increase absenteeism and turnover
Why do organizationsl fail to respond?
- Deaf ear syndrome refers to the inaction or complacency of organizations in the face of charges of sexual harassment
- There are 3 reasons why org fail to respond
- 1) Inadequate policies and procedures to manage harassment complaints
- 2) defensive managerial reaction
- 3) Organizational features that contribute to inertial tendencies
What are some ways to deal with sexual harasssment?
- 1) examine the characteristics of deaf ear organizations: find characteristics that make them susceptible to this syndrome
- 2) foster management support and education: training programs
- 3) Take immediate action: failure to act swiftly will have negative consequences
- 4) Stay vigilant: monitor the work environement to avoid hostile-ness
- 5) Create state of the art policy: clearly define what consititutes sexual harassment
- 5) establish a clear reporting procedures: user-friendly policies to clear procedures for filing companies and mechanisms in place for investigations of these complaints but remember privacy must be protected