Chapter 24

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  1. Describe the functions of the kidney
    • a) Regulates the volume of blood
    • b)Regulates the blood pressure
    • c)Regulatesthe production of hormones
    • d)Regulates the ionic comp[osition of blood
    • e)Regulates the PH of blood.
  2. Describe the sequence of structures through which a drop of urine passes from the time it flows from the nephron until it reaches the urinary bladder.
    Nephron-->Collecting duct-->Papillary duct-->Minor Calyx-->Major Calyx-->Renal Pelvis-->Ureter-->Urinary bladder
  3. Describe the sequence of structures through which a drop of blood passes from the time it flows from the renal artery into the kidney until it reaches the renal vein.
    Renal artery-->segmental arteries-->interlobar arteries-->arcuate arteries-->interlobular arteries-->afferent arterioles-->glomerular capillaries-->efferent arterioles-->Peritubular capillaries-->interlobular veins-->arcuate veins-->interlobar veins--> renal vein
  4. Describe the sequence of structures through which a drop of fluid passes from the time it flows from the glomerulus until it reaches the collecting duct.
    Glomerular capsule- proximal convoluted tubule- loop of henle- distal convoluted tubule- into collecting duct.
  5. Describe the juxtaglomerular apparatus
    The JGA is a major regulator of systemic blood pressure.
  6. Describe the three basic processes that produce urine.
    • 1.Glomerular filtration- Water and solutes in blood plasma moves across the glomerular capillaries to the glomerular capsule and renal tubule.It is the first step in urine production.
    • 2.Tubular reabsorption-It takes back substances from the filtrate such as water and solutes to blood through peritubular capillaries.
    • 3.Tubular secretions-substances such as wastes, drugs and excess ions from peritubular capillary blood , tubule or duct cells are secreted back into the fluid through renal tubule and collecting duct.
  7. Explaining why the glomerulus is able to filter a greater volume of fluid than capillaries elsewhere in the body:
    1. Large surface area of the glomerulus, 2. Large fenestrations in the endothelium, 3. Blood pressure in the glomerulus is higher than in the capillaries in the rest of the body
  8. Defining glomerular filtration rate
    amount of filtrate formed in all renal corpuscles of both kidneys per minute
  9. Define renal calculi and state their common name:
    Renal calculi are insoluble salt crystals that can form anywhere within the kidney tubules, ureters, urinary bladder, or urethra. they are commonly called Kidney stones. Renal calculi can cause considerable pain as they pass through the lumens of urinary systems organs.
  10. Stating the function of the juxtaglomerular cells
    constitutes juxtaglomerular apparatus with macula densa
  11. Describing how antidiuretic hormone influences tubular reabsorption of water
    the ADH influences the permeability of the convoluted tubules, this will help the water and nutrients be reabsorbed into the cells and into the blood stream
  12. Relating diabetes insipidus with antidiuretic hormone and urine output
    lack of ADH, water is not reabsorbed and as a result, large volume of urine is excreted
  13. Formation of dilute urine
    H2O reabsorbed in descending loop of Henle resulting in more concentrated tubular fluid. Ascending Loop of Henle reabsorbs more solutes but not water, resulting in progressively dilute tubular fluid this continues in distal convoluted tubule further diluting tubular fluid. Absence of ADH makes collecting ducts impermeable to water but allows absorption of solutes leaving increasingly diluted tubular fluid to drain into the renal pelvis.
  14. Formation of concentrated urine
    symporters in thick ascending limb establish osmotic gradient; principal cells in collecting duct reabsorb more water when ADH is present; urea recycling causes buildup in renal medulla
  15. Related function of antidiuretic hormone
    The convoluted tubules are impermeable to water when antidiuretic hormone is absent or low. So, low ADH results in diluted urine and high ADH results in concentrated urine.
  16. Define diuretic
    Substances that causes diuresis or increased flow of urine by decreasing the renal absorption of water
  17. Explain the mechanism of alcohol and caffeine as diuretics.
    • caffeine - inhibits the absorption of Na+
    • alcohol - inhibits ADH secretion
  18. Summarize the mechanism of dialysis
    Dialysis is the procedure to cleanse blood artificially. It is the separation of large solutes from smaller ones by diffusion through a selectively permeable membrane.
  19. Describe the function of transitional epithelium and name the urinary system organs lined with this tissue
    Transitional epithelium lines the urinary bladder and ureters.It has the ability to stretch which enables the ureters and bladdar to change its size thus enabling them to accomodate varying volumes of urine.
  20. Describe the location and function of the internal and external urethral sphincters
    Around the opening to the urethra the muscularis forms an internal urethral sphincter.Inferior to the urethral internal sphincter is the external urethral sphincter
  21. Define micturition
    discharge of urine fron urinary bladder into urethra
  22. Describe the micturition reflex
    Micturition reflex relaxes the invlountary, smooth internal urethral sphincter. This reflex then relaxes the external urethral sphincter which is under voluntary control and urination occurs
  23. pyelonephritis
    Inflammation of the kidneys
  24. cystitis
    Inflammation of the urinary bladder.
  25. Explain why urinary tract infections are more common in females
    in females, the urethra is much closer to the anus and is shorter than in males; women also lack prostatic secretions
  26. Define urinary incontinence
    Inability over voluntary control of urination
  27. Define urinary retention
    Inability to completely empty the bladder (despite the urge to urinate.)
  28. Define acid-base balance
    a homeostatic mechanisms to keep pH level of body fluids in the appropriate range
  29. Cloudy urine
    Precence of microbes, pus
  30. Low or high pH
    • low pH indicates high protein diet(acidic urine)
    • high pH indicates a low protein diet like vagetarian diets(alkaline urine)
  31. Low or high specific gravity
    • Low specific gravity: dehydration or glucosuria
    • High specific gravity: diebetes insipidus, kidney infection, kindey failure
  32. Glucosuria
    Glucose in the urine, due to a high blood concentration of glucose. Most common cause is diabetes mellitus.
  33. Hematuria
    Presence of RBC in the urine, could be due to a damage to the glomerular filtration membrane allowing large items such as RBC to pass through (pyelonephritis), in cystitis or urethritis-damage to the epithelium caused by a inflammation or infection
  34. Albuminuria
    high amounts of albumin in urine, caused by high blood pressure, kidney trauma, disease or inflammation
  35. Ketonuria
    Caused by metabolic condition called ketosis for lack of enough glucose to break down the fatty acid
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Chapter 24
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