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  1. Describe the correlation between speed (momentum) & kinetic energy
    Kinetic energy increases much faster (at a greater rate) than does speed (momentum)
  2. Name the two types of speed laws:
    • 1) Basic (prima facie) speed limits
    • 2) Absolute Speed Limits
  3. Describe how the 85th percentile is conducted:
    The speed of all vehicles is determined at a specific location & time. The statistics are studied to determine the pace (10mph segment containing 60% to 70% of the total vehicles) and the speed at which a cumulative total of 85% of the vehicles are traveling
  4. How can a police officer prove an alleged violation of "speed too fast for conditions" in a court of law?
    By conducting a speed study (at the same time, location & conditions) which shows the pace and the 85th percentile
  5. What procedure is an officer accomplishing during Quick Pace Timing? (QPT)
    Pacing a vehicle and timing his following distance by use of a stopwatch
  6. In order to establish a tracking history it is essential that an officer accurately estimates both ____________ & ______________
    distance (range) & speed (velocity)
  7. When using time-distance formulas what two items must an officer certify?
    • The timing device (ie:stop watch)
    • & Device used to measure distance (ie. roller tape)
  8. Radio and light waves interact with the enviornment in one of three ways explain:
    • A. Reflect
    • B. Refract (Diffuse)
    • C. Absorb
  9. Explain the doppler shift or the Doppler frequency
    The difference between the transmitted frequency and the recieved frequency
  10. Continious wave, doppler traffic radar is unable to determine ________
    range (distance)
  11. A radar signal relected off a target which is moving towards the radar will be _______ and returned at a ______ frequency
    compressed & higher
  12. Name three factors which determine the reflectivity of a target vehicle
    • a) size
    • b) shape
    • c) vehicle composition
  13. Name two factors which determine target selection within the main power beam
    • A) location from the axis of the main power beam
    • B) distance from the transmitter
  14. Name three functions of the doppler audio
    • A) Assists with the inital observation & identification of the target vehicle
    • B) assists with target selectivity problems
    • C) Assists in identifying possible sources of interference
  15. Which of the following statements is most accurate when describing identification of vehicles as they pass through the radar beam:

    A) Police Officers should not use traffic radar because it is too complicated and can result in bad citations
    B) Police officers do not have to understand the beam of the radar, so long as the officer writes good citations
    C) Target Reflectivity complicates target identification
    D) The main power beam is so narrow that the chance of error is extremeley small
  16. Which of the following statements is most accurate when describing the inverse square law?

    A) A closer vehicle will reflect less signal than a furthur vehicle
    B) As the distance doubles, the reflected signal increases by 1/4th
    C) As the distance doubles, the reflected signal decreases to 1/4th
    D) There is no direct correlation b/w signal power and distance from the radar
  17. Which of the following statements is most accurate in describing contour lines of sensitivity?

    A) All vehicles reflect the radar signal equally
    B) The location of the vehicle within the radar beam is an important factor regarding the amount of radio energy which is reflected back to the transmitter
    C) A closer vehicle will always reflect a stronger signal
    D) Larger vehicles will reflect more of the radar signal than do smaller vehicles
  18. Describe three methods to control the radar range in the stationary mode:
    • 1. Sensitivty (range) control functions can be turned down
    • 2. tilting or angling the antenna
    • 3. Use of the environment such as hills and curves
  19. Name three important features to consider when mounting a radar antenna:
    • 1. Securely mounted and positioned away from air bags
    • 2. Position the antenna to prevent feedback from the counting unit
    • 3. Position the antenna in a location of minimal distortion
  20. Name four methods of testing a radar unit:
    • 1. Light segment test
    • 2. Internal Circuitry test
    • 3. External turning fork test
    • 4. Known speed test
  21. Name four tuning fork tests that should be conducted on a dual antenna radar:
    • 1. Front antenna- stationary mode
    • 2. Front antenna - moving mode
    • 3. Rear Antenna - stationary mode
    • 4. Rear antenna - moving mode
  22. Name the three areas of emphasis for stationary radar tracking history:
    • 1. Visual Observation
    • 2. Audio Confirmation
    • 3. Radar Verification
  23. Name two reasons why it is important to know what external sources may affect radar
    • 1. understanding radar effects helps to elimate possible sources of interference
    • 2. understanding radar effects helps to disregard erroneous readings
  24. Give three examples of radio frequency interference (RFI)
    • 1. RFI from transmitters such as police and business radios
    • 2. RFI from light sources such as mercury vapor, neon, and fluorescent lights
    • 3. RFI from power sources such as power substations and high voltage transformers
  25. Name three procedures to elimate of effectively reduce heat build-up in a radar:
    • 1. mount the counting unit in a location other than the dash
    • 2. use a sun shade when the patrol car is parked unattended
    • 3. operate the air conditioning through the defroster vents
  26. Radar effects are usually weak signals, short in duration, and lack _____________
    supportive evidence (tracking history)
  27. Why are active radar jamming devices illegal?
    They are not licensced by the FCC to transmit on frequencies reserved for police traffic radar
  28. If a radar operator questions the indicated target speed, what enforcement action should be taken?
  29. Describe the functions of a low doppler & high doppler in moving radar?
    Low doppler is the patrol speed determined from the signal bouncing off the road

    High doppler is the relative speed between the patrol car and the target vehicle
  30. Define the shadowing effect as it applies to moving radar:
    Shadowing effect is when the low doppler frequency is reflecting off a moving behicle directly ahead of the patrol car, thus resulting in an erroneous patrol speed calculation
  31. When staring from a parked position in heavy traffic and operating a radar in the moving mode, what often happens to the low Doppler?
    Slow moving vehicles ahead of the patrol car cover the hot spot and the radar does not recieve a low Doppler frequency. On approach of a target vehicle the patrol speed (low doppler) will be displayed as the relative speed b/w the patrol car and the target vehicle. This is known as low-speed combining
  32. Describe three procedures to correct low-speed combining
    • 1. Activate patrol speed blank
    • 2. Tilting the antenna
    • 3. Cycling the radar from moving to stationary then back to moving mode
  33. The high doppler circuit on radar processes what information?
    The relative speed b/w the patrol car and the target vehicle
  34. Give three examples of harmonic signal interference:
    • 1. pulsating signal amplitude effect
    • 2. multi-path signal effect
    • 3. own speed capture effect
  35. Name the four areas of emphasis for moving radar tracking history:
    • 1. Visual observation
    • 2. Audio Confirmation
    • 3. Radar Verification
    • 4. Speedometer verification
  36. Describe two incidents when an officer would utilize patrol 5/20: (one incident for patrol 5, one incident for patrol 20)
    Patrol 5 would be utilized when entering a school zone and traveling under 20 mph

    Patrol 20 should be utilized during routine patrol at speeds above 20 mph to reduce shadowing effect
  37. When utilizing same lane tracking, two precautions must be observed. Describe:
    1. At least a 5 mph difference in relative speed from the patrol car to the target vehicle

    2. There should not be excessive traffic (unless a DSR radar is used)
  38. Track Thru Locking (TTL) is an important feature during the moving mode. Why?
    Track Thru Locking (TTL) allows an officer to monitor the patrol vehicle speed after a target vehicle speed has been locked in the middle window (continious tracking). When the officer slows by 10 mph to pursue the violator (kustom radar) or stops the patrol car (stalker radar) the radar then displays the patrol speed at the time the target vehicle was locked
  39. Describe the relationship b/w the fastest vehicle mode and a complete tracking history
    operating in the fastest vehicle mode, observing all traffic, and not locking onto a target vehicle, allows an officer to obtain a complete tracking history of the target vehicle and all other vehicles in the immediate area
  40. List five safety guidelines for the operation of police traffic radar:
    • 1. do not point the radar toward the body
    • 2. Utilize the RF hold feature when not in use
    • 3. Do not position anyone within two feet directly infront of the antenna
    • 4. utilize porper antenna mounting brackets
    • 5. position the antenna away from reflective objects in the interior of the vehicle
  41. Why is the photo radar beam angled at approximately 22 degress across the roadway?
    To prevent photgraphing a target behicle which is too far from the camera for a positive identification of the front license plate and an unobstructed view of the driver
  42. Why has the use of photo radar been restricted by several states?
    It has sometimes been viewed as a source of generating revenue rather than public safety
  43. Police traffic lidar utilizes what two methods to determine speed:
    • 1. the pulse principle
    • 2. the speed of light constant
  44. What four tests must an officer perform to prepare a lidar case for court?
    • 1. known distance
    • 2. known speed
    • 3. slight alignment
    • 4. technician certification
  45. Explain tracking history as it applies to the operation of lidar:
    • 1. visual observation of the target- estimate speed and range
    • 2. audio laser lock
    • 3. lidar verification of speed for 2 to 3 seconds
Card Set
radar test december
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