Sociology Final

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Sociology Final
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2011-12-15 23:16:12
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100 Foundational Concepts in Sociology flashcards
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  1. Sociology
    The study of human groups and societies, giving articular emphasis to the analysis of the industrialized world
  2. Sociological Imagination
    the application of imaginative thought to the asking and answering of sociological questions
  3. Social Facts
    according to Emile Durkheim, the aspects of social life that shape our actions as individuals
  4. Anomie
    Durkheim; referring to a situation in which social norms lose their hold over individual behavior
  5. Latent Functions
    functional consequences that are not intended or recognized by the members of a social system in which they occur
  6. Independent Variable
    a factor that causally affects another
  7. Random Sampling
    sampling method in which a sample is chose so that eevery member of the population has the same probability of being included
  8. Control Variable
    statistical or experimental means of holding variables constant in order to examine the causal influence of others
  9. Survey
    a method of sociological research in which questionnaires are administered to the population being studied
  10. Ethnography
    the firsthand study of people using participant observation or interviewing
  11. Experiment
    a research method in which variables can be analyzed in a controlled and systematic way, either in an artificial situation constructed by the researcher or in naturally occurring settings
  12. Hypothesis
    ideas or guesses about a given state of affairs, put forward as bases for empirical testing
  13. Culture
    the values, norms, and material goods characteristic of a given group
  14. Subculture
    values and norms distinct from those of the majority, held by a group within a wider society
  15. Cultural Relativism
    the practice of judging a society by its own standards
  16. Ethnocentrism
    The tendency to look at toher cultures through the eyes of one's own culture, and thereby misrepresent them
  17. Socialization
    The social process through which children develop an awareness of social norms and values and achieve a distinct sense of self
  18. Impression Management
    preparing for the presentation of one's social role
  19. Total Institutions
    groups who exercise control over their members by making them subsume their individual identites in that of the group, compelling them to adhere to strrict ethical codes or rules
  20. Social Structure
    the underlying regularities or patterns in how people behave and in their relationships with one another
  21. Primary Group
    groups that are characterized by intense emotional ties, face-to-face interaction, intimacy, and a strong, enduring sense of commitment
  22. Reference Group
    a group that provides a standard for judging one's attitudes or behaviors
  23. Formal Organization
    means by which a group is rationally designed to achieve its objectives, often by means of explicit rules, regulations, and procedures
  24. Bureaucracy
    A type of organization marked by a clear hierarchy of authority and the existence of written rules of procedure and staffed by fill-time, salaried officlas
  25. Deviance
    modes of action that do not conform to the norms or values held by most members of a group or society. Varies from different cultures
  26. Crime
    any actions that contavene the law established by a political authority
  27. White-Collar Crimes
    criminal activities carried out by those in white collar or professional jobs
  28. Social Stratification
    the existence of structured inequalities between groups in society, in terms of their access to material or symbolic rewards
  29. Caste
    life long social status
  30. Socio-Economic Status
    status based on the amount of money you make
  31. life chances
    a term introduced by Max Weber to signify a persons opportunities for achieving economic prosperity
  32. Structural Mobility
    mobility resulting from changes in the number and kinds of jobs available in society
  33. Colonialism
    the process whereby western nations established their rule in parts of the wolrd away from their home territories
  34. World Systems Theory
    the interconnections among countries based on the expansion of a capitalist world economy. made up of core, semiperiphery, and periphery countries
  35. Race
    differences in human physical characterisitcs used to categorize large numbers of individuals
  36. Ethnicity
    cultural values and norms that distinguish the members of a given group from others
  37. Prejudice
    the holding of preconceived ideas about an individual or group that are resistant to change
  38. Racism
    the attribution of characteristics of superiority or inferiority to a population sharing certain physically inhereited characteristics; a form of prejudice
  39. Institutional Discrimination
    discrimination that have become structured into existing social institutions
  40. Assimilation
    the acceptance of a minority group by a majority population, in which the new group takes on the values and norms of the dominant culture
  41. Discrimination
    behavior that denies to the members of a particular group resources or rewards that can be obained by others
  42. Stereotyping
    thinking in terms of fixed and inflexible categories
  43. Gender
    social expectations about behavior regarded as appropriate for the members of each sex
  44. Patriarchy
    the dominance of men over women
  45. Pink Collar Work
    work intended for women
  46. Glass ceiling
    a promotion barrier that prevents a woman's upward mobility within an organization
  47. Family
    a group of individuals related to one another by blood or marriage
  48. Kinship
    a relation that links individuals through blood or marriage or adoption
  49. marriage
    a socially approved sexual relationship between two individuals
  50. matriarchical
    woman dominating
  51. Religion
    a set of beliefs adhered to by the members of a community, incorporating symbols regarded with a sense of awe or wonder together with ritual practices
  52. Sacred
    describing something that inspires attitudes of awe or reverence among believers in agiven set of religious ideas
  53. Cults
    fragmentary religious groupings to which individuals are loosely affiliated, but which lack any permanent structure
  54. postindustrial society
    a notion advocated by those who believe thaat processes of social change are taking us beyond the industrialized order
  55. Fecundity
    a measure of the number of children that it is biologically possible for a woman to produce
  56. Malthusian
    a doctrine about population dynamics developed by malthus according to which population increase comes up against natural limits, represented by famine and war
  57. Gesellschaft
    larger institution never takes over personal opinions

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