Bio 10.txt

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Bio 10.txt
2011-12-15 23:20:02
biology chapter 10

biology chapter 10
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  1. Molecular biology
    Study of heredity at the molecular level
  2. Bacteriophages
    • Bacteria eaters
    • Viruses that exclusively infect bacteria
    • So known as phages
  3. Nucleotides
    Chemical units that make up polymers
  4. Polynucleotide
    A nucleotide polymer chain
  5. Sugar phosphate backbone
    • Repeating pattern of sugar-phosphate.... Etc
    • Nucleotides bonded to other nucleotides' sugar and phosphates
  6. Thymine
    • T in DNA
    • Single ring structure called pyrimidines
  7. Cytosine
    • C in DNA
    • Single ring pyrimidines
  8. Adenine
    • A in DNA
    • Larger double ring structure called purine
  9. Guanine
    • G in DNA
    • Larger double ring purine
  10. DNA
    • Deoxyribonucleic acid
    • 4 bases
    • Located in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells
  11. Uracil
    • U in RNA
    • Very similar to thymine in DNA
    • All other bases are the same
  12. Double helix
    • The structure of DNA
    • Like a rope ladder twisted around
    • Ropes are sugar phosphate backbone and rungs are nucleotide pairings
  13. Semi conservative model
    New DNA is replicated with one parent strand and one strand of new nucleotides
  14. Origins of replication
    • Short stretches of DNA where the nucleotides allow specific proteins to attach to separate the strands
    • Where DNA replication begins
  15. DNA polymerases
    • The enzymes that link new nucleotides to a daughter strand of DNA
    • Removes incorrectly parked bases and repairs DNA
  16. DNA ligase
    • Links short pieces of DNA into a single DNA strand
    • Repairs DNA from harmful radiation or toxic chemicals
  17. Transcription
    Synthesis of RNA from DNA
  18. Translation
    Synthesis of proteins from RNA
  19. Triplet code
    3 nucleotides are used for each codon
  20. Codons
    • Genetic instructions for the amino acids of a polypeptide chain
    • Three-base nucleotide "words"
  21. Genetic code
    Set of rules that relate codons in RNA to amino acids in proteins
  22. RNA polymerase
    Enzymes that link RNA nucleotides
  23. Promoter
    • Binding site for RNA polymerase
    • Determines which strand of DNA will be transcribed
  24. Terminator
    • Signals the end of the gene
    • Polymerase detaches
  25. Messenger RNA
    • mRNA
    • RNA that encodes amino acid sequences
    • Conveys genetic messages
  26. Introns
    Noncoding sequences in most plants and animals
  27. Exons
    • Coding regions
    • Parts of genes that are expressed in mRNA
  28. RNA splicing
    The removing of introns and combination of exons to create a conducive while
  29. Transfer RNA
    • tRNA
    • Turns codons into amino acid proteins
    • Molecular interpreter
  30. Anticodon
    • Complementary to RNA codons
    • Attached to tRNA and codes for a specific amino acid
    • Triplet of bases
  31. Ribosomes
    Position mRNA and tRNA close together and catalyze the reaction
  32. Ribosomal RNA
    rRNA with the subunits make up ribosomes
  33. Start codon
    Where translation begins on the mRNA (AUG)
  34. P site
    Holds the growing polypeptide
  35. A site
    • Vacant and holds amino-acid-tRNA
    • Passes tRNA through
  36. Codon recognition
    Anticodon pairs with codon in the A site
  37. Peptide bond formation
    • Polypeptide separates from tRNA in P site
    • Attaches to amino acid with peptide bond
  38. Translocation
    tRNA is shifted from A site to P site and next tRNA arrives in the A site
  39. Stop codon
    • UAA, UAG, UGA
    • Act as signals to stop translation
    • Ribosome separates
    • Polypeptide is freed
  40. Mutation
    A change in the nucleotide sequence
  41. Silent mutation
    A substitution in mRNA that doesn't change what amino acid will be produced by the triplet
  42. Missense mutations
    Substitutions that cause the triplet to code for a different amino acid
  43. Nonsense mutation
    • Change an amino acid to a stop codon
    • End translation early so protein won't function properly
  44. Reading frame
    • Triplet grouping
    • Can be changed when a nucleotide is deleted
  45. Mutagenesis
    • Production of mutations
    • Can occur in many different ways
  46. Mutagens
    • Physical or chemical agents
    • X-rays, AZT anti-AIDS drug
  47. Virus
    Infectious particle with nucleic acid and wrapped in a protein coat
  48. Capsid
    The protein coat on a virus
  49. Lytic cycle
    Causes the host cell to breakdown or lysis
  50. Lysogenic cycle
    Viral DNA replication that occurs without destroying he host cells
  51. Prophage
    Phage DNA after inserted into the cell's DNA
  52. Emerging virus
    • New or sudden viruses
    • Caused by genetic mutations
  53. AIDS
    • acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
    • Attacks immune system
  54. HIV
    • Human immunodeficiency virus
    • Causes AIDS
    • Resembles mumps virus except has reverse transcriptase
  55. Reverse transcriptase
    Catalyzes reverse transcription
  56. Reverse transcription
    • The use of RNA to create DNA
    • Needs a reverse transcriptase
  57. Retro viruses
    When a virus uses reverse transcription
  58. Viroid
    • Small circular RNA molecules that infect plants
    • Don't encode proteins but can replicate in host cells
  59. Prions
    • Cause degenerative brain diseases
    • Misfolded proteins
    • Converts normal proteins to misfolded proteins
  60. Transformation
    DNA mutates by absorbing foreign DNA from the environment
  61. Transduction
    • A previous host cell in the Lytic cycle is on a bacteriophage's coat
    • DNA gets injected into the new host and causes the DNA to mutate
  62. Conjugation
    • The mating of 2 bacteria
    • Donor cell copies DNA as it passes it to the recipient
    • New DNA crosses over with old DNA and becomes several recombinat chromosomes
  63. F factor
    • F for fertility
    • Allows conjugation
    • Carries genes for sex pili
    • Origin of DNA replication
  64. Plasmid
    • DNA molecule separate from the bacterial chromosome
    • Has origin of replication
    • Changes cells from recipients to donors
  65. R plasmids
    • Carry genes for enzymes that destroy antibiotics
    • Bacteria with these have multiplied- resist antibiotics