DOQ Unit 1 and 2
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DOQ Unit 1 and 2
DOQ UNIT ONE AND TWO
1. What word means the scientific study of behavior and mental processes?
2.What are the four goals of psychology?
3.What word means an assumption or prediction about behavior that is tested through scientific research?
4.What word means a set of assumptions used to explain phenomena and offered for scientific study?
5. What term means the pursuit of knowledge about natural phenomena for its own sake?
6. What term means discovering ways to use scientific findings to accomplish practical goals?
7. What term means a general approach to gathering information and answering questions so that errors and biases are minimized?
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
8. Who set up the first psychology laboratory?
9. What year did Wilhelm Wundt set up the first psychology laboratory?
10. Where did Wilhelm Wundt set up the first psychology laboratory?
11. What research procedure did Wilhelm Wundt follow?
12. Who said that criminal behavior is a direct result of the shape of a person�s head?
MARMADUKE B. SAMPSON
13. What is the practice of examining bumps on a person�s skull to determine that person�s intellect and character traits?
14. What is the name of the French philosopher who said the mind and body influence each other?
15. Which approach to psychology did Wilhelm Wundt advocate?
16. The first ever psychology class was taught at Harvard in 1875 by whom?
17. Who wrote the first psychology textbook?
18. Which approach to psychology did William James advocate?
19.What is the name of the 19th century English scientist who was the cousin of Charles Darwin and who believed in eugenics?
SIR FRANCIS GALTON
20. What is the German word for whole pattern?
21.Who are the 3 founders of Gestalt Psychology?
MAX WERTHEIMER WOLFGANG KOHLER KURT KOFFKA
22.Please name the 6 Contemporary Approaches to Psychology.
BEHAVIOISMHUMANISM BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOANALYTIC COGNITIVESOCIAL
23.Who established the Psychoanalytic Approach?
24. Who are the three great Behavioral Psychologists?
IVAN PAVLOV JOHN B. WATSON BF SKINNER
25. Who are the three great Humanistic Psychologists?
ABRAHAM MASLOW CARL ROGERS ROLLO MAY
26. Who are the three great Cognitive Psychologists?
JEAN PIAGET NOAM CHOMSKY LEON FESTINGER
27. What five machines are used to study the brain?
EEG CT scan PET scan MRI/fMRI MEG/MSI
28. Who was the first female president of the American Psychological Association?
MARY WHITON CALKINS
29. What does APA stand for?
AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION
30. Who wrote the book The Principles of Psychology?
31. Who wrote the book Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development?
SIR FRANCIS GALTON
32. Who wrote the book Walden II?
33. Which approach to psychology believes behavior is determined by unconscious ideas?
34. Which approach to psychology believes behavior is determined by rewards and punishments?
35. Which approach to psychology believes behavior is determined by self-directed choices?
36. Which approach to psychology believes behavior is determined by how people remember and think?
37. Which approach to psychology believes behavior is determined by the nervous system?
38. Which approach to psychology believes behavior is determined by ethnicity, gender and economic status?
39. Name the two ancient Greek philosophers who developed the Four Humor Theory.
HIPPOCRATES AND GALEN
40. Which branch of medicine deals with mental, emotional or behavioral disorders?
41. Which kind of psychologist diagnoses and treats people with emotional disturbances?
42. Which kind of psychologist studies how people change as they mature?
43. What does RET stand for?
RATIONAL EMOTIVE THERAPY
44. What does CBT stand for?
COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY
45. What is the opposite of Free Will?
46. What word means the process of drilling a hole in a skull?
47. Who believed in Dualism?
48. Who believed in Empiricism?
49. What does tabula rasa mean?
50. Who said, �Cogito ergo sum.�
51. What word refers to the small group of people out of a total population being studied?
52. One way to avoid a non-representative sample is to give each individual an equal chance of being represented. What is this called?
53. What term refers to subgroups in the population being proportionately represented in the sample?
54. Research method in which the psychologist observes a subject in a natural setting without interfering.
55. Research method that involves an intensive investigation of one or more participants.
56. Research method in which data is collected about a sample over a number of years.
57. Research method in which data is collected from people of different ages and compared so that conclusions can be drawn about differences due to age.
58. Research method in which information is obtained by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions.
59. The measure of a relationship between two variables.
60. Any factor that is capable of change.
61. What kind of correlation exists when both variables move in the same direction?
62.What kind of correlation exists when both variables move in opposite directions?
63. What is the only kind of research method which establishes a cause and effect relationship between two variables?
64. In an experiment, which group receives the independent variable?
65. In an experiment, which group does not receive the independent variable?
66. What is an experiment called in which the participants are unaware of which participants received the treatment?
67. What is an experiment called in which both the participants and the experimenter are unaware of which participants received the treatment?
68. What are the two kinds of statistics?
DESCRIPTIVE AND INFERENTIAL
69. What are the three measures of central tendency?
MEAN, MEDIAN AND MODE
70. What are two other terms for a normal curve?
BELL SHAPED CURVE AND SYMMETRICAL CURVE
71. What percentage of the population falls within 1 standard deviation of the mean?
72. What percentage of the population falls within 2 standard deviation of the mean?
73. What percentage of the population falls within 3 standard deviation of the mean?
74. How do you calculate standard deviation?
SQUARE ROOT OF THE VARIANCE
75. How do you calculate variance?
SQUARE OF SD
76. What is the symbol for the Pearson correlation coefficient?
77. What numbers represent a perfect correlation?
+1 AND -1
78. What number represents no correlation?
79. If the probability that results are due to chance is less than 5%, then the results are considered what?
80. Who conducted the conformity experiment?
81. Who conducted the obedience to authority experiment?
82.Who conducted the Stanford Prison experiment?
83.An inclination to over attribute others� behavior to internal causes and to discount situational factors
.FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR
84.Tendency to view one�s successes as stemming from internal factors and one�s failures as stemming from external factors.
85. An increase in performance in front of a crowd.
86. A decrease in performance in front of a crowd.
87. Theory that discussion reinforces the majority�s point of view and shifts opinions to more extreme positions.
88. Poor group decision making that occurs because a group emphasizes unity over critical thinking.
89. Method of gaining compliance by getting a person to agree to a relatively minor request first.
90. Method of gaining compliance by first making an outrageous request and then replying to the refusal with a more reasonable request.
91. Unselfishly helping others for reasons other than rewards.
92. When the presence of others lessens an individual�s feelings of responsibility for his or her actions.
DIFFUSION OF RESPONSIBILITY
93. Tendency of a person to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
94. Tendency for people to work less hard when sharing the workload than when they are working alone.
95. Individuals behave irrationally when there is less chance of being personally identified.
96. State of unpleasant psychological tension that arises when a person experiences contradictory thoughts or beliefs.
97. The need to rationalize one�s attitude and behavior.
98. Change in attitude opposite to the one desired by the persuader.
99. The delayed impact on attitude change of a persuasive communication.
100. Method of developing resistance to persuasion by exposing a person to arguments that challenge his or her beliefs so that he or she can practice defending them.
1. The internally programmed growth of a child.
2. What reflex occurs as a clinging response to a touch
on the palm of a baby�s hand?
3. What reflex occurs when touching occurs anywhere around a baby�s mouth?
4. What reflex occurs when anything touches a baby�s lips?
5. What reflex occurs when the foot is stroked and the toes spread?
6. What reflex occurs when a baby flings his or her limbs out after being startled?
7. Who established the Psychosexual Theory of Development?
8. Who established the Psychosocial Theory of Development?
9. Who established the Cognitive Theory of Development?
10. Who established the Moral Theory of Development?
11. Name the researcher who discovered geese form a rapid attachment to their mother called imprinting.
12. Name the researcher who studied the relationship between mother and child in rhesus monkeys.
13. Name the researcher who studied attachment in families.
14. What term is defined as an inherited tendency of some newborn animals to follow the first moving object they see?
15. What term is defined as a specific time in development when certain skills or abilities are most easily learned?
16. Harry Harlow discovered that touching causes baby monkeys to form attachments with their mothers. What is this called?
CONTACT COMFORT TACTILE TOUCH
17. Name the four kinds of attachments.
SECURE AVOIDANT RESISTANT DISORGANIZED
18. A conceptual framework a person uses to make sense of the world.
19. The process of fitting objects and experiences into one�s schemas.
20. The adjustment of one�s schemas to include newly observed events and experiences.
21. What term is defined as the awareness that objects exist even when they cannot be perceived?
22. What term refers to the intellectual ability of a child to picture something in their mind?
23. What term is defined as the principle that a given quantity does not change when its appearance changes?
24. What term refers to a young child�s inability to understand another person�s perspective?
25. Which parenting style allows the child to participate in decision making?
26. Which parenting style is characterized by parents giving in to their child�s demands?
27. What kind of parents believe they do not have to explain their actions or demands?
28. What causes infants to quietly and mysteriously die in their sleep?
SIDS (SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME)
29. What is the process of redirecting sexual impulses into learning tasks called?
30. What is the process by which a child adopts the values of the same sex parent?
31. What is the process of learning the rules of behavior of the culture within which an individual is born and lives called?
32. Name the first stage of Cognitive development.
33. Name the second stage of Cognitive development.
34. Name the third stage of Cognitive development.
35. Name the fourth stage of Cognitive development.
36. A 1 year old would be in what stage of Psychosexual development?
37. A 2 year old would be in what stage of Psychosexual development?
38. A 5 year old would be in what stage of Psychosexual development?
39. An 8 year old would be in what stage of Psychosexual development?
40. A 15 year old would be in what stage of Psychosexual development?
41. Stage 1: Trust vs. ___
42. Stage 2: Autonomy vs. ___
SHAME AND DOUBT
43. Stage 3: Initiative vs. ___
44. Stage 4: Industry vs. ___
45. Stage 5: Identity vs. ___
46. Stage 6: Intimacy vs. ___
47. Stage 7: Generativity vs. ___
48. Stage 8: Integrity vs. ___
49. What are the three levels of moral development?
PRE-CONVENTIONAL CONVENTIONAL POST-CONVENTIONAL
50. What influences moral development?
51. What term refers to inborn emotional excitability?
52. What term refers to externally taught changes in behavior?
53. What term refers to anything that can harm an unborn baby?
54. Please name the researcher who coined the term Language Acquisition Device.
55. Please name the researcher who coined the term Critical Period.
56. Please name the psychologist who did extensive research on parenting styles.
57. At what stage of Cognitive Development does a child lack object permanence?
58. At what stage of Cognitive Development does a child exhibit egocentric thinking?
59. At what stage of Cognitive Development does a child?
60. At what stage of Cognitive Development does a child exhibit abstract thinking?
61. At what level of Moral Development does a person adhere to Universal Ethical Principles?
62. If weaned too early or too late, babies may fail to resolve the conflicts of this stage and develop what?
63. Before people were diagnosed with OCD they would be described by a Freudian psychologist as having what?
64. During the Phallic Stage a boy might develop what kind of complex?
65. During the Phallic Stage a girl might develop what kind of complex?
66. Sexual maturation; the end of childhood and the point when reproduction is first possible.
67. The first menstrual period.
68. Period during which males achieve first ejaculation.
69. Uneven growth of body parts during adolescence.
70. Combining or blending traditionally male and female characteristics.
71. The biological event in which a woman�s production of sex hormones is sharply reduced.
72. Seriously considering identity issues, but no commitment yet.
IDENTITY MORATORIUM ADOLESCENTS
73. Have made a firm commitment on identity issues based on the suggestions of others.
IDENTITY FORECLOSURE ADOLESCENTS
74. Have not given any thought to identity issues.
IDENTITY CONFUSED ADOLESCENTS
75. Have freely committed to important identity issues.
IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT ADOLESCENTS
76. According to Freud which part of the personality follows the Pleasure Principle?
77. According to Freud which part of the personality follows the Reality Principle?
78. According to Freud which part of the personality follows the Morality Principle?
79. What are the two parts of the ID?
80. According to Freud, which part of the personality acts as the referee?
81. Defense Mechanism: Replacing an unacceptable feeling with an opposite one.
82. Defense Mechanism: Redirecting a forbidden desire into a socially acceptable desire.
83. Defense Mechanism: Not accepting the truth or the reality of a situation.
84. Defense Mechanism: Pushing painful thoughts or memories out of the conscious mind.
85. Defense Mechanism: Taking out your anger on a less powerful person.
86. Defense Mechanism: Creating a reason or excuse to make a wrong act seem right.
87. Defense Mechanism: Going back to an earlier less mature pattern of behavior.
88. Defense Mechanism: Believing that emotions are not coming from within but are coming from other people.
89. Who was Sigmund Freud�s greatest student?
90. According to Carl Jung, what part of the mind contains inherited instincts?
THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
91. What term is defined as an inherited idea?
92. Jungian term, kind of person who likes to think; gets over stimulated by sensation.
93. Jungian term, kind of person who likes to do; does not get tired until they are alone.
94. Who coined the term inferiority complex?
95. A pattern of avoiding feelings of inadequacy rather than trying to overcome their source.
96. What is Maslow�s term for a person realizing one�s unique potential?
97. What is Rogers� term for a person realizing one�s unique potential?
98. What term refers to the conditions a person must meet in order to regard himself or herself positively?
CONDITIONS OF WORTH
99. What term refers to the Humanist term for one�s image of oneself developed through interaction with others?
100.The process of being valued by significant people in your life for who you are.
UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD