DOQ Unit 1 and 2

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DOQ Unit 1 and 2
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DOQ UNIT ONE AND TWO
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  1. 1. What word means the scientific study of behavior and mental processes?
    PSYCHOLOGY
  2. 2.What are the four goals of psychology?
    DESCRIBEEXPLAIN PREDICTINFLUENCE
  3. 3.What word means an assumption or prediction about behavior that is tested through scientific research?
    HYPOTHESIS
  4. 4.What word means a set of assumptions used to explain phenomena and offered for scientific study?
    THEORY
  5. 5. What term means the pursuit of knowledge about natural phenomena for its own sake?
    BASIC SCIENCE
  6. 6. What term means discovering ways to use scientific findings to accomplish practical goals?
    APPLIED SCIENCE
  7. 7. What term means a general approach to gathering information and answering questions so that errors and biases are minimized?
    THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
  8. 8. Who set up the first psychology laboratory?
    WILHELM WUNDT
  9. 9. What year did Wilhelm Wundt set up the first psychology laboratory?
    1879
  10. 10. Where did Wilhelm Wundt set up the first psychology laboratory?
    LEIPZIG, GERMANY
  11. 11. What research procedure did Wilhelm Wundt follow?
    INTROSPECTION
  12. 12. Who said that criminal behavior is a direct result of the shape of a person�s head?
    MARMADUKE B. SAMPSON
  13. 13. What is the practice of examining bumps on a person�s skull to determine that person�s intellect and character traits?
    PHRENOLOGY
  14. 14. What is the name of the French philosopher who said the mind and body influence each other?
    RENE DESCARTES
  15. 15. Which approach to psychology did Wilhelm Wundt advocate?
    STRUCTURALISM
  16. 16. The first ever psychology class was taught at Harvard in 1875 by whom?
    WILLIAM JAMES
  17. 17. Who wrote the first psychology textbook?
    WILLIAM JAMES
  18. 18. Which approach to psychology did William James advocate?
    FUNCTIONALISM
  19. 19.What is the name of the 19th century English scientist who was the cousin of Charles Darwin and who believed in eugenics?
    SIR FRANCIS GALTON
  20. 20. What is the German word for whole pattern?
    GESTALT
  21. 21.Who are the 3 founders of Gestalt Psychology?
    MAX WERTHEIMER WOLFGANG KOHLER KURT KOFFKA
  22. 22.Please name the 6 Contemporary Approaches to Psychology.
    BEHAVIOISMHUMANISM BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOANALYTIC COGNITIVESOCIAL
  23. 23.Who established the Psychoanalytic Approach?
    SIGMUND FREUD
  24. 24. Who are the three great Behavioral Psychologists?
    IVAN PAVLOV JOHN B. WATSON BF SKINNER
  25. 25. Who are the three great Humanistic Psychologists?
    ABRAHAM MASLOW CARL ROGERS ROLLO MAY
  26. 26. Who are the three great Cognitive Psychologists?
    JEAN PIAGET NOAM CHOMSKY LEON FESTINGER
  27. 27. What five machines are used to study the brain?
    EEG CT scan PET scan MRI/fMRI MEG/MSI
  28. 28. Who was the first female president of the American Psychological Association?
    MARY WHITON CALKINS
  29. 29. What does APA stand for?
    AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION
  30. 30. Who wrote the book The Principles of Psychology?
    WILLIAM JAMES
  31. 31. Who wrote the book Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development?
    SIR FRANCIS GALTON
  32. 32. Who wrote the book Walden II?
    BF SKINNER
  33. 33. Which approach to psychology believes behavior is determined by unconscious ideas?
    PSYCHOANALYTIC
  34. 34. Which approach to psychology believes behavior is determined by rewards and punishments?
    BEHAVIORISM
  35. 35. Which approach to psychology believes behavior is determined by self-directed choices?
    HUMANISM
  36. 36. Which approach to psychology believes behavior is determined by how people remember and think?
    COGNITIVE
  37. 37. Which approach to psychology believes behavior is determined by the nervous system?
    BIOLOGICAL
  38. 38. Which approach to psychology believes behavior is determined by ethnicity, gender and economic status?
    SOCIAL
  39. 39. Name the two ancient Greek philosophers who developed the Four Humor Theory.
    HIPPOCRATES AND GALEN
  40. 40. Which branch of medicine deals with mental, emotional or behavioral disorders?
    PSYCHIATRY
  41. 41. Which kind of psychologist diagnoses and treats people with emotional disturbances?
    CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGIST
  42. 42. Which kind of psychologist studies how people change as they mature?
    DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGIST
  43. 43. What does RET stand for?
    RATIONAL EMOTIVE THERAPY
  44. 44. What does CBT stand for?
    COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY
  45. 45. What is the opposite of Free Will?
    DETERMINISM
  46. 46. What word means the process of drilling a hole in a skull?
    TREPHINATION
  47. 47. Who believed in Dualism?
    RENE DESCARTES
  48. 48. Who believed in Empiricism?
    JOHN LOCKE
  49. 49. What does tabula rasa mean?
    BLANK SLATE
  50. 50. Who said, �Cogito ergo sum.�
    RENE DESCARTES
  51. 51. What word refers to the small group of people out of a total population being studied?
    SAMPLE
  52. 52. One way to avoid a non-representative sample is to give each individual an equal chance of being represented. What is this called?
    RANDOM SAMPLING
  53. 53. What term refers to subgroups in the population being proportionately represented in the sample?
    STRATIFIED SAMPLING
  54. 54. Research method in which the psychologist observes a subject in a natural setting without interfering.
    NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION
  55. 55. Research method that involves an intensive investigation of one or more participants.
    CASE STUDY
  56. 56. Research method in which data is collected about a sample over a number of years.
    LONGITUDINAL STUDY
  57. 57. Research method in which data is collected from people of different ages and compared so that conclusions can be drawn about differences due to age.
    CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY
  58. 58. Research method in which information is obtained by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions.
    SURVEY
  59. 59. The measure of a relationship between two variables.
    CORRELATION
  60. 60. Any factor that is capable of change.
    VARIABLE
  61. 61. What kind of correlation exists when both variables move in the same direction?
    POSITIVE CORRELATION
  62. 62.What kind of correlation exists when both variables move in opposite directions?
    NEGATIVE CORRELATION
  63. 63. What is the only kind of research method which establishes a cause and effect relationship between two variables?
    EXPERIMENT
  64. 64. In an experiment, which group receives the independent variable?
    EXPERIEMENTAL GROUP
  65. 65. In an experiment, which group does not receive the independent variable?
    CONTROL GROUP
  66. 66. What is an experiment called in which the participants are unaware of which participants received the treatment?
    SINGLE-BLIND EXPERIEMENT
  67. 67. What is an experiment called in which both the participants and the experimenter are unaware of which participants received the treatment?
    DOUBLE-BLIND EXPERIEMENT
  68. 68. What are the two kinds of statistics?
    DESCRIPTIVE AND INFERENTIAL
  69. 69. What are the three measures of central tendency?
    MEAN, MEDIAN AND MODE
  70. 70. What are two other terms for a normal curve?
    BELL SHAPED CURVE AND SYMMETRICAL CURVE
  71. 71. What percentage of the population falls within 1 standard deviation of the mean?
    68%
  72. 72. What percentage of the population falls within 2 standard deviation of the mean?
    95%
  73. 73. What percentage of the population falls within 3 standard deviation of the mean?
    99%
  74. 74. How do you calculate standard deviation?
    SQUARE ROOT OF THE VARIANCE
  75. 75. How do you calculate variance?
    SQUARE OF SD
  76. 76. What is the symbol for the Pearson correlation coefficient?
    r
  77. 77. What numbers represent a perfect correlation?
    +1 AND -1
  78. 78. What number represents no correlation?
    0
  79. 79. If the probability that results are due to chance is less than 5%, then the results are considered what?
    STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT
  80. 80. Who conducted the conformity experiment?
    SOLOMON ASCH
  81. 81. Who conducted the obedience to authority experiment?
    STANLEY MILGRAM
  82. 82.Who conducted the Stanford Prison experiment?
    PHILIP ZIMBARDO
  83. 83.An inclination to over attribute others� behavior to internal causes and to discount situational factors
    .FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR
  84. 84.Tendency to view one�s successes as stemming from internal factors and one�s failures as stemming from external factors.
    SELF-SERVING BIAS
  85. 85. An increase in performance in front of a crowd.
    SOCIAL FACILITATION
  86. 86. A decrease in performance in front of a crowd.
    SOCIAL INHIBITION
  87. 87. Theory that discussion reinforces the majority�s point of view and shifts opinions to more extreme positions.
    GROUP POLARIZATION
  88. 88. Poor group decision making that occurs because a group emphasizes unity over critical thinking.
    GROUPTHINK
  89. 89. Method of gaining compliance by getting a person to agree to a relatively minor request first.
    FOOT-IN-THE-DOOR TECHNIQUE
  90. 90. Method of gaining compliance by first making an outrageous request and then replying to the refusal with a more reasonable request.
    DOOR-IN-THE-FACE TECHNIQUE
  91. 91. Unselfishly helping others for reasons other than rewards.
    ALTRUISM
  92. 92. When the presence of others lessens an individual�s feelings of responsibility for his or her actions.
    DIFFUSION OF RESPONSIBILITY
  93. 93. Tendency of a person to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
    BYSTANDER EFFECT
  94. 94. Tendency for people to work less hard when sharing the workload than when they are working alone.
    SOCIAL LOAFING
  95. 95. Individuals behave irrationally when there is less chance of being personally identified.
    DEINDIVIDUATION
  96. 96. State of unpleasant psychological tension that arises when a person experiences contradictory thoughts or beliefs.
    COGNITIVE DISSONANCE
  97. 97. The need to rationalize one�s attitude and behavior.
    SELF-JUSTIFICATION
  98. 98. Change in attitude opposite to the one desired by the persuader.
    BOOMERANG EFFECT
  99. 99. The delayed impact on attitude change of a persuasive communication.
    SLEEPER EFFECT
  100. 100. Method of developing resistance to persuasion by exposing a person to arguments that challenge his or her beliefs so that he or she can practice defending them.
    INOCULATION EFFECT
  101. 1. The internally programmed growth of a child.
    MATURATION
  102. 2. What reflex occurs as a clinging response to a touch
    • on the palm of a baby�s hand?
    • GRASPING REFLEX
  103. 3. What reflex occurs when touching occurs anywhere around a baby�s mouth?
    ROOTING REFLEX
  104. 4. What reflex occurs when anything touches a baby�s lips?
    SUCKING REFLEX
  105. 5. What reflex occurs when the foot is stroked and the toes spread?
    BABINSKI REFLEX
  106. 6. What reflex occurs when a baby flings his or her limbs out after being startled?
    MORO REFLEX
  107. 7. Who established the Psychosexual Theory of Development?
    SIGMUND FREUD
  108. 8. Who established the Psychosocial Theory of Development?
    ERIK ERIKSON
  109. 9. Who established the Cognitive Theory of Development?
    JEAN PIAGET
  110. 10. Who established the Moral Theory of Development?
    LAWRENCE KOHLBERG
  111. 11. Name the researcher who discovered geese form a rapid attachment to their mother called imprinting.
    KONRAD LORENZ
  112. 12. Name the researcher who studied the relationship between mother and child in rhesus monkeys.
    HARRY HARLOW
  113. 13. Name the researcher who studied attachment in families.
    MARY AINSWORTH
  114. 14. What term is defined as an inherited tendency of some newborn animals to follow the first moving object they see?
    IMPRINTING
  115. 15. What term is defined as a specific time in development when certain skills or abilities are most easily learned?
    CRITICAL PERIOD
  116. 16. Harry Harlow discovered that touching causes baby monkeys to form attachments with their mothers. What is this called?
    CONTACT COMFORT TACTILE TOUCH
  117. 17. Name the four kinds of attachments.
    SECURE AVOIDANT RESISTANT DISORGANIZED
  118. 18. A conceptual framework a person uses to make sense of the world.
    SCHEMA
  119. 19. The process of fitting objects and experiences into one�s schemas.
    ASSIMILATION
  120. 20. The adjustment of one�s schemas to include newly observed events and experiences.
    ACCOMMODATION
  121. 21. What term is defined as the awareness that objects exist even when they cannot be perceived?
    OBJECT PERMANENCE
  122. 22. What term refers to the intellectual ability of a child to picture something in their mind?
    REPRESENTATIONAL THOUGHT
  123. 23. What term is defined as the principle that a given quantity does not change when its appearance changes?
    CONSERVATION
  124. 24. What term refers to a young child�s inability to understand another person�s perspective?
    EGOCENTRIC
  125. 25. Which parenting style allows the child to participate in decision making?
    DEMOCRATIC
  126. 26. Which parenting style is characterized by parents giving in to their child�s demands?
    PERMISSIVE
  127. 27. What kind of parents believe they do not have to explain their actions or demands?
    AUTHORITARIAN
  128. 28. What causes infants to quietly and mysteriously die in their sleep?
    SIDS (SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME)
  129. 29. What is the process of redirecting sexual impulses into learning tasks called?
    SUBLIMATION
  130. 30. What is the process by which a child adopts the values of the same sex parent?
    IDENTIFICATION
  131. 31. What is the process of learning the rules of behavior of the culture within which an individual is born and lives called?
    SOCIALIZATION
  132. 32. Name the first stage of Cognitive development.
    SENSORIMOTOR
  133. 33. Name the second stage of Cognitive development.
    PRE-OPERATIONAL
  134. 34. Name the third stage of Cognitive development.
    CONCRETE OPERATIONS
  135. 35. Name the fourth stage of Cognitive development.
    FORMAL OPERATIONS
  136. 36. A 1 year old would be in what stage of Psychosexual development?
    ORAL
  137. 37. A 2 year old would be in what stage of Psychosexual development?
    ANAL
  138. 38. A 5 year old would be in what stage of Psychosexual development?
    PHALLIC
  139. 39. An 8 year old would be in what stage of Psychosexual development?
    LATENCY
  140. 40. A 15 year old would be in what stage of Psychosexual development?
    GENITAL
  141. 41. Stage 1: Trust vs. ___
    MISTRUST
  142. 42. Stage 2: Autonomy vs. ___
    SHAME AND DOUBT
  143. 43. Stage 3: Initiative vs. ___
    GUILT
  144. 44. Stage 4: Industry vs. ___
    INFERIORITY
  145. 45. Stage 5: Identity vs. ___
    ROLE CONFUSION
  146. 46. Stage 6: Intimacy vs. ___
    ISOLATION
  147. 47. Stage 7: Generativity vs. ___
    STAGNATION
  148. 48. Stage 8: Integrity vs. ___
    DESPAIR
  149. 49. What are the three levels of moral development?
    PRE-CONVENTIONAL CONVENTIONAL POST-CONVENTIONAL
  150. 50. What influences moral development?
    COGNITIVE ABILITIES
  151. 51. What term refers to inborn emotional excitability?
    TEMPERMENT
  152. 52. What term refers to externally taught changes in behavior?
    LEARNING
  153. 53. What term refers to anything that can harm an unborn baby?
    TERATOGEN
  154. 54. Please name the researcher who coined the term Language Acquisition Device.
    NOAM CHOMSKY
  155. 55. Please name the researcher who coined the term Critical Period.
    ERIC LENNEBERG
  156. 56. Please name the psychologist who did extensive research on parenting styles.
    DIANA BAUMRIND
  157. 57. At what stage of Cognitive Development does a child lack object permanence?
    SENSORIMOTOR
  158. 58. At what stage of Cognitive Development does a child exhibit egocentric thinking?
    PRE-OPERATIONAL
  159. 59. At what stage of Cognitive Development does a child?
    CONCRETE OPERATIONS
  160. 60. At what stage of Cognitive Development does a child exhibit abstract thinking?
    FORMAL OPERATIONS
  161. 61. At what level of Moral Development does a person adhere to Universal Ethical Principles?
    POST CONVENTIONAL
  162. 62. If weaned too early or too late, babies may fail to resolve the conflicts of this stage and develop what?
    ORAL FIXATION
  163. 63. Before people were diagnosed with OCD they would be described by a Freudian psychologist as having what?
    ANAL FIXATION
  164. 64. During the Phallic Stage a boy might develop what kind of complex?
    OEDIPUS COMPLEX
  165. 65. During the Phallic Stage a girl might develop what kind of complex?
    ELECTRA COMPLEX
  166. 66. Sexual maturation; the end of childhood and the point when reproduction is first possible.
    PUBERTY
  167. 67. The first menstrual period.
    MENARCHE
  168. 68. Period during which males achieve first ejaculation.
    SPERMARCHE
  169. 69. Uneven growth of body parts during adolescence.
    ASYNCHRONY
  170. 70. Combining or blending traditionally male and female characteristics.
    ANDROGYNOUS
  171. 71. The biological event in which a woman�s production of sex hormones is sharply reduced.
    MENOPAUSE
  172. 72. Seriously considering identity issues, but no commitment yet.
    IDENTITY MORATORIUM ADOLESCENTS
  173. 73. Have made a firm commitment on identity issues based on the suggestions of others.
    IDENTITY FORECLOSURE ADOLESCENTS
  174. 74. Have not given any thought to identity issues.
    IDENTITY CONFUSED ADOLESCENTS
  175. 75. Have freely committed to important identity issues.
    IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT ADOLESCENTS
  176. 76. According to Freud which part of the personality follows the Pleasure Principle?
    ID
  177. 77. According to Freud which part of the personality follows the Reality Principle?
    EGO
  178. 78. According to Freud which part of the personality follows the Morality Principle?
    SUPEREGO
  179. 79. What are the two parts of the ID?
    • EROS
    • THANATOS
  180. 80. According to Freud, which part of the personality acts as the referee?
    EGO
  181. 81. Defense Mechanism: Replacing an unacceptable feeling with an opposite one.
    REACTION FORMATION
  182. 82. Defense Mechanism: Redirecting a forbidden desire into a socially acceptable desire.
    SUBLIMATION
  183. 83. Defense Mechanism: Not accepting the truth or the reality of a situation.
    DENIAL
  184. 84. Defense Mechanism: Pushing painful thoughts or memories out of the conscious mind.
    REPRESSION
  185. 85. Defense Mechanism: Taking out your anger on a less powerful person.
    DISPLACEMENT
  186. 86. Defense Mechanism: Creating a reason or excuse to make a wrong act seem right.
    RATIONALIZATION
  187. 87. Defense Mechanism: Going back to an earlier less mature pattern of behavior.
    REGRESSION
  188. 88. Defense Mechanism: Believing that emotions are not coming from within but are coming from other people.
    PROJECTION
  189. 89. Who was Sigmund Freud�s greatest student?
    CARL JUNG
  190. 90. According to Carl Jung, what part of the mind contains inherited instincts?
    THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
  191. 91. What term is defined as an inherited idea?
    ARCHETYPE
  192. 92. Jungian term, kind of person who likes to think; gets over stimulated by sensation.
    INTROVERT
  193. 93. Jungian term, kind of person who likes to do; does not get tired until they are alone.
    EXTRAVERT
  194. 94. Who coined the term inferiority complex?
    ALFRED ADLER
  195. 95. A pattern of avoiding feelings of inadequacy rather than trying to overcome their source.
    INFERIORITY COMPLEX
  196. 96. What is Maslow�s term for a person realizing one�s unique potential?
    SELF-ACTUALIZATION
  197. 97. What is Rogers� term for a person realizing one�s unique potential?
    FULLY FUNCTIONING
  198. 98. What term refers to the conditions a person must meet in order to regard himself or herself positively?
    CONDITIONS OF WORTH
  199. 99. What term refers to the Humanist term for one�s image of oneself developed through interaction with others?
    THE SELF
  200. 100.The process of being valued by significant people in your life for who you are.
    UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD

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