Bio 11 (1).txt

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Anonymous
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124040
Filename:
Bio 11 (1).txt
Updated:
2011-12-16 00:31:02
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biology 11
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chapter 11
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  1. Gene regulation
    • The turning on and off of genes
    • Helps organisms respond to environmental changes
  2. Gene expression
    The overall process from genes to proteins or genotype to phenotype
  3. Promoter
    Where RNA polymerase attaches and initiates transcription
  4. Operator
    • DNA control sequence
    • Operates as a switch
    • Determines whether RNA polymerase can attach to the promoter
  5. Operon
    • Cluster of genes with related functions
    • Usually exist only in prokaryotes
    • Single on-off switch can control the whole cluster
  6. Repressor
    • Turns off transcription
    • Protein that binds to the operator and physically blocks RNA polymerase from attaching
  7. Regulatory gene
    • Outside the operon
    • Codes for a repressor protein
    • Expressed continually so there's always some repressors
  8. Activator
    • Protein that turns operon on when bound to DNA
    • Make it easier for RNA polymerase to attach
  9. Differentiation
    Process cells undergo to become specialized in structure and function
  10. Histones
    Small proteins associated with DNA that deal with DNA packing
  11. Nucleosome
    DNA wound around the protein core of 8 histone molecules
  12. Linkers
    Short pieces of DNA that connect the various nucleosome beads
  13. Epigenetic inheritance
    Inherited traits not directly involving the nucleotide sequence
  14. X chromosome inactivation
    • One of the 2 Xs in females I turned off by compacting one X chromosome
    • All daughter cells turn off the same X
  15. Barr body
    Compact object made from an inactivated cell
  16. Transcription factors
    Proteins needed for the RNA polymerase to attach
  17. Enhancers
    • Transcription factors that bind to DNA control sequences
    • 1st step to initiate gen transcription
    • Cause DNA to bend because Enhancers are far away from genes they regulate
  18. Silencers
    Repressor proteins that bind to DNA sequences to inhibit the start of transcription
  19. Alternative RNA splicing
    More than one polypeptide from each gene due to different combinations of exons- sometimes missing one, sometimes a different, sometimes have all of them
  20. Micro RNAs
    • miRNA
    • Small RNA molecules that can bind to complementary mRNA
  21. RNA interference
    • Using miRNA to artificially control gene expression- turn off a certain gene
    • RNAi
  22. Homeotic gene
    Master control gene that regulates genes that determine specific anatomy of the body
  23. DNA microarray
    • Glass slide with thousands of different kinds of single strand DNA fragments fixed in tiny wells
    • Used to see which genes are active in an organism using fluorescent cDNAs
  24. Signal transduction pathway
    • Converts a signal on a cell's surface to do a specific task inside the cell
    • Signal molecule binds to receptor protein in membrane which a activates relay proteins which activates a transcription factor that activates transcription and then translation to produce a specific protein
  25. Clone
    • An organism produced through asexual reproduction that is an exact copy of the parent cell
    • Common in plants
  26. Regeneration
    Cells dedifferentiate, divide, the redifferentiate to grow lost limbs
  27. Oncogene
    • Single copies of genes in a cell that can cause cancer
    • Greek for tumor
  28. Proto-oncogene
    • Normal, healthy gene with the potential to become an oncogene from:
    • Mutation within gene, multiple copies of gene, gene is moved to new DNA locus
  29. Tumor-suppressor gene
    • Prevent in controlled cell division
    • Mutation that decreases production can lead to cancer
  30. Nuclear transplantation
    The replacement of a nucleus of an egg cell with the nucleus from an adult somatic cell
  31. Reproductive cloning
    • Implanting the transplanted cell in a surrogate mother
    • Birth of new living material
  32. Embryonic stem cells
    • Harvested from a blastocyst
    • Give rise to any specialized cell in the body
    • Used for therapeutic treatments
  33. Therapeutic cloning
    When the main purpose of embryonic stem cells is for therapeutic treatments
  34. Adult stem cells
    • Unlike embryonic stem cells only give rise to many related cells in the body
    • Found in bone marrow, hair, eyes
  35. Carcinogens
    • Cancer-causing agents
    • Factors that alter DNA and make cells cancerous
    • Promote cell division or genetic mutation

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