A group consists of two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal (group members rely on each other to accomplish goals)
Group membership are important because they exert influence on us as well as allow us understand what we are and how we exert influence on other people (reciprocal)
Distinguish between formal and informal groups
formal work groups are groups that are established by organizations to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals (managers and employees who report to manager or a committee and task forces)
Informal groups emerge naturally because of common interest of organizational memebrs and it is seldom sanctioned by organiation (does not mean org does not approve, it's just not organized by them)
Informal groups can either help or hurt an organization depending on their norms for behaviour
Discuss group development
Groups are complex social devices as it requires negotiation and trail-and-error before individual memebrs begin to function as a true group
Groups develop through a series of stages over time before they are able to function together to accomplish a goal
Each stage is a challenge that they must master to achieve the next stage and these stages model is a good tool to monitor if group is coming together and can focus on accomplishing the task or troubleshooting how groups are developing
The typical stages of group development are forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning
Explain each one of the stages of group development
1) forming: what is the purpose of the group as they try to test the waters and orient themselves
2) Storming: Conflicts start to emerge because we feel more comofrtable and need to know who is doing what and what is everyone's role and responsibility
3) Norming: We resolve issues and group becomes cohesive as they develop social consensus
4) Performing: Group devotes its energies toward task accomplishment
5) Adjourning: Members disperse after group achieve its goal
What is the punctuated equilibrium model?
It is focused on teams that have a defined deadline and this model states that groups with deadlines are going to be affected by their first meeting and crucial midpoint transition
phase 1: begins in first meeting and continues until midpoint in the groups' existence (it is very important in what will happen in the remainder of the phase as it either sets you up for success or a lot of difficulties)
phase 2: decisions and approached adopted at midpoint is played out in phase 2 and is concluded with a burst of activity and a concern for how outsiders will evaluate the product
What are advice you can give for managing teams?
Prepare carefully for first meeting and do not look for radical progress during phase 1, manage midpoint transition carefully and be sure you have the adequate resources you need to execute the phase 2 plan and resist deadline changes (because it can damage the midpoint transition)
Explain how group size influence what occurs in groups.
Members tend to feel less satisfaction in large groups than smaller ones and many people are inhibited in participating in large groups and feel they identify less easily to group and identify less with the success and accomplishments of the group
However the relationship btwn group size and performance is dependent on the task the group needs to accomplish and how we define group performance
1) additive tasks: group performance is dependent on sum of the performance of individual group members
2) disjunctive task: group performance is dependent on best group member
3) conjunction: group performance is dependent on poorest group member
What are some characteristics of stable social organization of a group?
size, member diversity, norms, roles, status and cohesiveness
What is process losses?
They are group performance difficulties that come up as we increase the number of members in a group
problems of motiavting and coordinating larger groups or communication and decision making as well as productivity
actual performance= potenetial performance- process losses
Explain how member diversity influence what occurs in groups
There are advantages and disadvantages of diversity
advantages: multiple perspectives, greater openness to new ideas, multiple interpretations, increase creativity, flexibility and problem solving skills
disadvantages: ambiguity, complexity, confusion and miscommunication, difficulty on reaching a single agreement and difficulty in agreeing on specific actions
however once they establish these norms, they can be just as good and even often better
What parts do diverse groups have more difficulty in and which parts do they excel?
They have a more difficult time communicating effectively and becoming cohesive but sometimes perform better when the task requires cognitive, creative and problem solving problems
Once they develop, they are equally coheisve and productive as negative effect of surface diversity weawr off
however deep diversity in attitude toward work and how to accomplish a goal can badly damage cohesiveness
Review how norms, roles and status affect social interactions
Group norms are codes of conduct that are established and specify the standards of appropriate behaviour and they affect social interactions because they provide regularity and predicatbility to behaviour and norms and develop about behaviours that are marginally or is very important to groups and they develop through shared attitudes among memebrs of a group
Roles are packagaes of nroms that apply to partiuclar group members; there are two kinds: assigned and emergent roles
ROle ambiguity happens when the goals of one's job or the methods or performing it is unclear such as organizational factors, role sender and focal person