Child & Adol Final

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  1. Early Symptoms of Autism.
    • Symbolic Play
    • Looking at faces
    • Following person's gaze
    • Turning when name is called
  2. Autism Criteria
    • Qualitative impairment in social interactions and communication
    • Repetitive/stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities
    • Delays/abnormal functioning with 1+ onset before 3 yo: social interaction, laungauge used in social communication, symbolic/imaginitive play
  3. Difference between Aspergers and Autism
    Asperger has no language delay
  4. Autistic are Neurologicall Oriented
    • Lack social/emotional reciprocity (ego-centricity: do not see from other people's perspective)
    • Don't develop a theory of mind: may not show empathy
  5. Autism: More interested in
    • parts of objects than whole
    • If they play with whole, may not play like others
  6. Autism: Failure of joint attention
    • don't respond when name is called
    • don't scan others faces or eye contact
  7. Symptoms start to regress at ________
    16-24 months
  8. Autism: Sensory Problems
    • sensitive to auditory stimuli and loud noises
    • brain processes things differently
  9. Autism: is a brain issue, some areas are _______ others are _____
    • overdeveloped
    • underdeveloped
  10. Autism Co-Morbid with
    • MR
    • Tic Disorder
    • ODD
    • Social Phobia
    • ADHD
  11. Asperger
    • Higher functioning Autism
    • Don't attend well when others are talking
    • Ego-centricism (not narcissistic)
    • Do not use language similar to peers
    • Mechanically communicate well, but not socially: speech may sound formal
    • Repetitive with words
    • May speak in monotone or sing-song tone
  12. Asperger intellectual levels are _____
    • inflexible
    • Some are high, others are not
  13. Factors Contributing to Obesity
    • Inactive habits
    • Under nutrition and obesity during pregnancy
    • Older children and adolescents prefer high-fat, easy to ingest snacks and meals
  14. Asthma and Anxiety
    • Often have disease-specific fear of suffocation
    • Asthma is most chronic disease overall in US
  15. Interaction between physical and psychological well-being
    • field has developed a positive, preventitive focus
    • Children and family to follow healthy diet, avoid substance abuse, and a healthy lifestyle
  16. Enuresis Criteria
    • Repeated voiding of urine onto bed/clothes (voluntary/unintentional)
    • 2 times per week for 3 months, or distress/impairment
    • 5+ years old
    • Nocturnal Only Type
    • Diurnal Only Type
    • Nocturnal and Diurnal
  17. Encopresis Criteria
    • Repeated passages of feces into inappropriate places (clothing, floor) voluntary/unintentional
    • At least one time per month for 3 months
    • 4+ years old
  18. Tic Disorder and Autism
    • Occurs more often in persons with autism
    • >30% of individuals with pervasive developmental disorders show some form of tics
  19. Nightmare Disorder Criteria
    • Repeated awakenings from sleep with detailed recall of frightening dreams usually involving threats to survival, security, or self-esteem (2nd half of sleep)
    • On awakening, person rapidly becomes oriented and alert
  20. Sleep Terror Disorder Criteria
    • Recurrent episodes of abrupt awakening from sleep beginning with a panicky scream (1st third of sleep)
    • Intense fears and autonomic arousal
    • Unresponsiveness to efforts of others to comfort the person
    • No detailed dream is recalled and amnesia for the episode
  21. Anorexia Nervosa Criteria
    • Refusal to maintain body weight at/above minimally normal weight for age and height or failure to make expected weight gains (<85%)
    • Fear of gaining weight
    • Disturbance in way body weight/shape is experienced, undue influence of weight/shape on self-evaluation, or denial of seriousness of current low body weight
    • Amenorrhea: absence of 3+ consecutive menstrual cycles
    • Restricting Type: no binging/purging
    • Binge/Purging Type: regularly engages in behavior
  22. Bulimia Nervosa Criteria
    • Recurrent episodes of binge eating
    • -eating in a discrete period an amound of food definitely larger than most would eat
    • -sense of lack of control while binging
    • Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain
    • Binging and compensatory behavior occur at least 2X a week for 3 months
    • Self-evaluation unduly influenced by body shape/weight
    • Purging Type: self-induced vomitting or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas
    • Non-Purging Type: fasting, excessive exercise
  23. Risk Factors for Anorexia:
    • Poor body image, low self-esteem
    • Obsessive type anxiety (about control/weight), ocd tendencies
    • Highly organized, perfectionistic, overachieving
    • Focus of self-esteem on body weight/shape
  24. Clinical Characteristics of Anorexia
    • Extreme concern about body weight/shape
    • Morbid fear of fatness
    • Co-morbidity with OCD
    • Need for control
    • Ego-syntonic
    • Higher rates of social phobia
    • Overactivity
    • Perfectionism
    • Resistance to change linked to need for control
  25. Medical Complications of Anorexia
    • Yellowish skin
    • Sensitivity to cold
    • Hypotension
    • Fine, downy hair on trunk/face
    • Erosion of dental enamel or calluses on hand from self-induced vomitting
  26. Clinical Characteristics of Bulimia
    • Typically secretive about disorder
    • Cognitive style marked by rigid rules and all/nothing thinking
    • Ego-dystonic: don't like that they're binging/purging
    • Borderline PD
    • More likley to have substance abuse
    • View self as completely in or out of control
  27. Onset of Anorexia
    Bimodal: 14/18
  28. Co-Morbidities: Anorexia and Bulimia
    • Anorexia: substance abuse, OCD, social phobia
    • Bulimia: substance abuse, anxiety disorders
  29. Schizophrenia
    • Bizarre
    • Not using language normally
    • Disconnected, affect incongruent with situation
    • Poor social skills and eye contact
    • Talk to self in a way that seems distressing, angry, or fearful
  30. Schizophrenia Co-morbid
    • Depression
    • ODD
    • CD
    • Suicidal tendencies
  31. Vulnerability Stress Model
    • Biological vulnerabilities + Life stressors
    • Model lacks specificity
    • Most impactful on brain: stressors that threaten child's safety/well-being
    • Genetic risk factors hyptohesized to lead to central nervous system dysfunction and impairments in attention and information processing
  32. Schizophrenia: Protective Factors
    • Intelligence
    • Social Support
    • Social competence
    • Healthy family communication
  33. Most likely to develop Schizophrenia with worst outcomes:
    • Greatest loading on vulnerability factors
    • Least amount of effective coping
    • Chronic stress
  34. Schizophrenia: Best supported hypothesis
    Childhood onset schizophrenia represents severe and chronic form with very early childhood onset reflecting more severe biological disposition
  35. Schizophrenia: Environmental Stressors
    • Pregnancy/Birth complications
    • Psychosocial stressors: disturbed rearing environments, economic distress, broken homes
  36. Schizophrenia: Co-morbid
    • CD
    • ODD
    • Dysthymic Disorder
  37. Sex Play
    • Normative, healthy
    • Not preoccupied with sex (curious about other things as well)
    • A lot of sex play not noticed because child is discrete
  38. Sexually-Reactive
    • Borderline stage that is generally not normative
    • Not aggressive but looks for other compliant children
    • Emtional confusion (family problems)
    • Begin to associate sex with love
  39. Extensive Mutual Sexual Behavior
    • Extensive, habitual, manipulative
    • Find willing partners
    • Learn to get emotional needs met through children (continue to relate to children as they get older)
    • Distrustful and abandoned by adults
    • Early stage of pedophilia
  40. Children Who Molest Criteria
    • Engages in sexual behavior that violates others emotional, physical, and/or sexual rights
    • Problematic sexual behaviors are a pervasive part of child's behavior and have occured across time and in different situations
    • Unresponsive to adult intervention and supervision

    -sexuality and aggression closely linked, use coercion, vulnerable victims, problems in all areas
  41. Gender Identity Disorder Criteria
    • A strong and persistent cross-gender identification
    • Persistent discomfort with his/her sex or sense of inappropriateness in the gender role of that sex
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Child & Adol Final
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