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Help locate or update primary and secodary sources.
1. A book containing
references, alphabetically arranged, to the contents of a series or collection
of documents or volumes; or a section (normally at the end) of a single volume
or set of volumes containing such references to its contents.
1. The system of fundamental
principles by which a political body or organization governs itself. Most
national constitutions are written; the english and israeli constitutions are
1. 1) statutory: brief
summaries of the law and facts of cases interpreting statutes passed by
congress or state legislatures that are included in codes; or (2) textual:
expository essays of varying length on significant legal topics chosen from
selected cases published with the essays.
n. a set of
procedural regulations adopted by courts which are mandatory upon parties and
their lawyers on matters within the jurisdiction of those courts. Most states
have statewide rules of court. Federal court rules are adopted by the district
courts based on the Federal Rules of Procedure, and county, district and
municipal court judges adopt what are called "local rules" of court.
Local rules encompass the time allowed to file papers, the format of documents
(including the paper colors of appeal court briefs), the number of copies to be
filed, the procedure to file motions, the basis for calculating alimony and
child support, fees for filing various documents, and numerous other mundane
but vital matters. These rules are violated or ignored at the peril of the
client and his/her/its counsel.
Rules of Court
Is a set of writing style guidelines for a certain publication or type
1. A set of books and online
sources that provide the subsequent judicial history and interpretation of
reported cases or lists of cases and legislative enactments construing,
applying, or affecting statutes. In America, the most widely used citators are
Shepard's citations and Keycite.
distinguished from constitutional law and the common law, is that body of law
laid down by a legislature. Both the U.S. Congress and state legislatures enact
statutes either by bill or by joint resolution. Federal statutes take
precedence over state statutes, and state statutes are superior to the common
law. Statutory law is inferior to constitutional law, and courts exercise the
power of judicial review when they declare statutes unconstitutional. Statutory
law is codified under titles describing the areas of action to which they
appertain, and these titles are grouped together in codes. The administrative
branch of government enforces statutory law often through the promulgation of
administrative rules and regulations that have the effect of law as long as
they lie within the limits set by the statutes.
1. The body or branch of law
concerned with the study, interpretation, and application of a country or
stateÂ’s constitution, including the issues of governance, the powers of the
branches and levels of government, civil liberties, and civil rights.
1. That portion of the law that
defines, regulates, enforces, and administers relationships among individuals,
associations, and corporations. As used in distinction to public law, the term
means that part of the law that is administered between citizen and citizen, or
that is concerned with the definition, regulation, and enforcement of rights in
cases where both the person in whom the right inheres and the person upon whom
the obligation rests are private individuals.
1. Is a citation “added on” to
a basic citation that lists one or more additional sources that have published
the same authority:
authoritative statements of legal rules by governmental bodies. They include
opinions of courts, constitutions, legislation, administrative regulations and
opinions, and rules of court.
1. An act that relates to the
public as a whole. It may be: (1) general (applies to all persons within the
jurisdiction); (2) local (applies to a geographical area); or (3) special
(relates to an organization that is charged with a public interest).
1. A copy of a bill that is
passed by a state legislature and endorsed by the governor, or passed by
Congress and signe d by the president, and is printed and distributed almost
1. In popular usage, a
compilation of statutes. Technically, in a code, the laws in force and judicial
decrees having the force of law, are rewritten and arranged in classified
order. Repealed and temporary acts are eliminated and the revision is
An index to reported cases, providing brief, unconnected statements of
court holdings on points of law, which are arranged by subject and subdivided
by jurisdiction and courts.
materials about the law that are used to explain, interpret, develop, locate or
update primary sources. The major types of secondary sources are treatises,
Restatements, Looseleaf services. . . law reviews and other legal periodicals,
legal encyclopedias, American Law Reports (A.L.R.) Annotations, and legal
system of law promulgated and implemented within a particular political
community by political superiors, as distinct from moral law or law existing in
an ideal community law typically consists of enacted law – the codes, statutes, and regulations that are applied and enforced
in the courts.
1. sets forth the facts,
evidence, and legal arguments the party intends to present at trial. They are
typically supported by citations to legal authority, such as statutes or case
law, but may also cite authoritative writings, statistics, or other sources.
1. is located inside the back
cover of the book. A legal researcher should always consult it to ensure that
the most current law is examined.
1. Laws enacted by a
legislature that are published in bound or pamphlet volumes after adjournment
of each regular or special session.
compilations of judicial opinions, most often from state and federal appellate courts, arranged acording to some grouping, Such as jurisdiction court period of time or subject matter
1. A published volume of the
decisions of a court or a group of courts.
1. Technology that allows
lawyers and judges to bypass the traditional law library and locate statutes,
court cases, and other legal references in minutes using a personal computer,
research software or the Internet, and an online connection.
2. CALR systems contain
thousands of databases. In addition to primary source materials, they offer
access to business and economic journals, national newspapers, law reviews,
federal tax abstracts, and financial data and materials. Specialized databases
for narrower topics such as taxes, Securities, labor, insurance, and Bankruptcy
are also available.
Computer Assisted Legal Research (CALR)