Microbiology

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Author:
MrsLuthor
ID:
124134
Filename:
Microbiology
Updated:
2011-12-17 19:20:00
Tags:
biology microbiology science
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Description:
Biology - Unit 2: Microbiology
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  1. Define: Binomial nomenclature
    A method of naming organsims by using two names - the Genus and the species names. Genus species names are always italicized.
  2. Taxon Catagories
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  3. Eubacteria
    • Characteristics:
    • Prokaryotic
    • Either autotrophic or heterotrophic
    • Reproduce asexually
    • Live nearly anywhere
    • Can cause disease

    Cell Wall: Contains peptidoglycan

    Examples: Bacteria, Cyanobacteria
  4. Archaebacteria
    • Characteristics:
    • Prokaryotic
    • Hetertroph or Autotroph
    • Live in salt lakes, hot springs, animal digestive tracts
    • Do not cause disease

    Cell Wall: Does not contain peptidoglycan

    Examples: Methogens, Halophiles, Thermophiles
  5. Protists
    • Characteristics:
    • Mostly single-celled
    • Eukaryotic
    • Some Autotroph, Some Heterotroph, Some Both
    • Reproduce sexually & asexually
    • Live in aquatic/moist environtment

    Cell Wall: Absent

    Examples: Algae, Protozoa
  6. Fungi
    • Characteristics:
    • Multicellular
    • Heterotrophs
    • Reproduce asexually & sexually
    • Terrestrial

    Cell Wall: Contains Chitin

    Examples: Mushrooms, Yeast, Bread Moulds
  7. Plantae
    • Characteristics:
    • Multicellular
    • Autotroph
    • Reproduce sexually & asexually
    • Terrestrial

    Cell Wall: Contains cellulose

    Examples: Mosses, Ferns, Trees, Flowering Plants
  8. Animalia
    • Characteristics:
    • Multicellular
    • Heterotrophs
    • Reproduce sexually
    • Terrestrial & Aquatic environments

    Examples: Sponges, Worms, Lobsters, Starfish, Humans
  9. Define: Virus
    A microscopic particle capable of reproducing only within living cells.
  10. Define: Host Range
    The limited number of host species, tissues, or cells that a virus or other parasite can infect.

    ex: only cows & humans, or only pigs and cows.
  11. Define: Lysogeny
    The dormant state of a virus.
  12. Define: Antibiotics
    A chemical produced synthetically or by microorganisms that inhibits the growth of or destroys certain other microorganisms.
  13. Define: Vaccines
    A suspension prepared from dead or weakend viral or bacterial cells.
  14. Why aren't viruses part of the six-kingdom classification system
    The taxon system is created to organize all living things. Viruses aren't alive.
  15. Define: Lysis
    The destruction or bursting open of a cell.

    ex: wjem am omvadomg voris replicates in a bacterium and many viruses are released by breaking out of the cell.
  16. Lytic Cycle
    Virus attaches to a host cell and injects its own genetic material into the host cell. The host cell then follows the genetic instructions from the virus to make more virus parts and assemble more viruses. Once the host cell is full of new viruse particles, they break out of the host cell, subsequantly killing the host cell and releasing many virus particles into the host body.
  17. Lysogenic Cycle
    The virus does not kill the host cell immediately. Instead of taking over, it's nucleix acid becomes integrated into the bacterium's DNA and acts as an additional set of genes on the host chomosomes. During this period, the virus seems to be in a dormant state. Dormat viruses can be activated by stimulis.
  18. DNA Viruses
    • Poxvirus: Small Pox
    • Varicella-Zoster: Chicken Pox
  19. RNA Viruses
    • Rhinovirus: Common Cold
    • Retrovirus: HIV/AIDS
    • Coronavirus: SARS
  20. Identifying Bacteria
    • 1. Gram Staining
    • 2. Shape
    • 3. Configuration
    • 4. Respiration
    • 5. Nutrition
  21. Gram Staining
    Positive: maintains crystal violet staining signifying peptidoglycan in the cell wall.

    Negative: maintains safrinin (red) staining signifying no peptidoglycan in the cell wall.

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