Greek and Roman Final

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  1. Prometheus
    • Titan creator and benefactor of humankind which he made from primeval earth and water; took Zeus' side in the battle against his cousins Titans; has a brother named Epimetheus (meaning dummy, opposite of Prometheus); constantly trying to trick those greater than himself; stole fire from heaven and returned it to the mortals, for this he was tied to a pillar in the Caucasus Mountains where everyday an eagle would
    • eat out his liver and every night it would grow back; was set free by Heracles after deciphering an oracle for Zeus
  2. Enki
    Mesopotamian god of wisdom and tricks; involved in creation of humankind with Ki
  3. Ki
    Mesopotamian mother earth goddess; involved in creation of humankind with Enki (ch. 5)
  4. Pandora
    • "All giver"; primordial woman created by Zeus to punish mankind as a way to punish Prometheus for stealing fire for the mortals (ch. 5)
    • Was molded by Hephaestus and received attributes of essentially all the gods, most notably: desire and heartbreak from Aphrodite, womanly skills from Athena, and thievish morals from Hermes
  5. Ziusudra
    The Sumerian Noah (ch. 5)
  6. Atrahasis
    Later (Akkadian) equivalent to Ziusudra, the Sumerian Noah (ch. 5)
  7. Lycaon
    Wicked man who, by serving human flesh to Zeus, brought about the flood that nearly exterminated humankind (ch. 5)
  8. Deucalion
    • Son of Prometheus; survived the flood sent by Zeus to destroy humankind; Greek Noah (ch. 5)
    • Helped to restore mankind after surviving the flood, he does this by following the instructions of an oracle and throwing stones behind him
  9. Pyrrha
    • Wife of Deucalion; survivor of the flood sent to destroy humankind (ch. 5)
    • Helped to restore womankind after surviving the flood, does this by following the instructions of an oracle and throwing stones behind her
  10. Hellên
    • One of the offspring of the 'bones of the mother'; ancestor of "Hellenes" (Greeks) (ch.5)
    • Had three very important sons, Dorus, Aeolus, and Xuthus
  11. Eponymous Ancestors
    • An ancestor whose name survives as the name of a people or a place. This Hellên, for example, can be said to be the eponymous ancestor of the Hellenes (Greeks) (ch. 5)
    • Also called eponym
  12. Hestia
    • Olympian, unwed goddess of the hearth (ch. 8)
    • Eldest child of Cronus and Rhea
    • Always a virgin and never left Olympus
  13. Aphrodite
    Olympian goddess of sexual love (ch. 8)
  14. Cypris
    • Another name for Aphrodite;
    • from the name of the island "Cyprus", it reveals her early origin as a Near Eastern sex goddess, like Inanna (ch.8)
  15. Hermaphroditus
    • Son of Hermes and Aphrodite;
    • coupled eternally with the nymph Salmacis, he/she is a being with features of both genders (ch. 8)
  16. Priapus
    Lusty son of Aphrodite with an enormous, eternally erect penis (ch. 8)
  17. Pygmalion
    • King of Cyprus who falls in love with his statue of the perfect woman that is given life by Aphrodite (ch. 8)
    • The statue is named Galatea and is the mother of Paphos for whom Aphrodite's sacred city is named
  18. Myrrha
    • Victim of Aphrodite; secretly sleeps with her own father (ch. 8)
    • Mother boasted that Myrrha was more beautiful than Aphrodite
    • After father finds out he slept with his daughter he tries to attack her with a sword, but she is transformed into the myrrh tree
    • after 9 months the tree splits open and the hero Adonis emerges
  19. Anchises
    • Shepherd of Troy with whom Aphrodite is compelled to fall in love with by Zeus as revenge for the mischief she causes among the immortals (ch. 8)
    • Boasts about his affair with Aphrodite and Zeus hits him in the leg with a thunder bolt, making him lame
    • He fathers her child Aeneas who is one of the few Trojan heroes to survive the conflagration of the city
  20. Artemis
    Olympian virgin goddess of the animals; the Potnia Therôn (ch.8)
  21. Potnia Therôn
    • "Mistress of the Beasts"; the deeply ancient fertility goddess with whom the Olympian Artemis has much in common (ch. 8)
    • She is very protective of her virginity
    • Sister of Apollo
  22. Niobê
    Queen of Thebes, whose 24 children (12 girls and 12 boys) are killed by Apollo and Artemis, in punishment for having belittled their mother Leto (ch. 8)
  23. Orion
    • Giant killed by Artemis (with a scorpion) either for having an affair with Eos or for trying to rape Artemis herself (ch. 8)
    • Artemis placed a scorpion on his head, which poisoned and killed him
  24. Actaeon
    Young man killed by Artemis for having accidentally seen her bathing; turning into a deer and torn apart by his own hunting dogs (ch. 8)
  25. Callisto
    Devotee of Artemis banished and changed int a bear by the goddess for having been raped and impregnated by Zeus (ch. 8)
  26. Athena
    Olympian goddess if the crafts of the home and war; patron goddess of Athens, from which she probably derives her name (ch. 8)
  27. Arachnê
    Common girl brazen enough to challenge Athena to a weaving contest; though she wins the contest, she is beaten by the goddess and finally, out of pity, changed into a spider (ch. 8)
  28. Demeter
    • Greek goddess of grain; mother of Persephonê, who is abducted by Hades (ch. 9)
    • Demeter and Persephonê are often thought of as two aspects of one goddess
    • Controls the seasons, sort of a Mother Goddess
    • Represents the grief a Greek mother would feel when she was forced to marry off her young daughter
  29. Persephonê
    • Daughter of Demeter and consort of Hades (ch. 9)
    • Abducted by Hades and tricked into eating a pomagranate seed so that she can not return to the world of the immortals for more than 2/3 of the year
    • Represents the young women married off to older, more experienced men
    • Sexual curiosity seperates her from her mother
    • Demeter and Persephone are often thought of as two different aspects of the same goddess, Persephone sort of represents the relationship of death and life
  30. Inanna
    • Mesopotamian goddess of heaven, love and war; with Dumuzi, she is the other half of the Mesopotamian cycle-of-nature myth (ch. 9)
    • She decends to the underworld to try and take the power from her sister, but she dies and must sacrifice her lover, Dumuzi, in order to return to life
  31. Korê
    "Daughter"; "Young girl"; often uses as an equivalent of Persephonê (ch. 9)
  32. Eleusinian Mysteries
    Elaborate rites in honour of Demeter and Persephonê, conducted in the town of Eleusis near, and later a part of, Athens (ch. 9)
  33. Triptolemus
    A prince of Eleusis to whom Demeter taught her secret rites and the art of growing grain (ch. 9)
  34. Dumuzi
    • Consort of Ianna; the Mesopotamian dying male god of fertility (ch. 9)
    • Is sacrificed by Inanna so that she may return from the underworld and restore fertility to the people/plants/animals of earth
  35. hieros gamos
    "Sacred marriage'; also refers to the ritual recreation of the original divine sexual union that guarantees the continuing fertility of the earth (ch. 9)
  36. Osiris
    • Brother and consort of Isis; the Egyptian dying male god of fertility (ch. 9)
    • Killed and cut up into 14 pieces by his brother and then brought back to life by Isis
    • Father of Horus the Hawk and Horus the Child
  37. Cybelê
    • Phrygian mother earth goddess (ch. 9)
    • Often thought to later influence the character of Sybil (the prophetess)
    • Consort of Attis
  38. Attis
    • Beautiful young boy and favourite of Cybelê, the Phrygian Great Mother (ch. 9)
    • His mother, Nana, becomes pregnant after taking a pomegranate seed from the tree that sprouted from Agdestis severed genitals
    • Rips off his own genitals on the day of his wedding
  39. Adonis
    • Beautiful young son of Myrrha and favourite if Aphrodite (ch. 9)
    • Is born from the Myrrha tree
    • Killed by a boar when hunting after Aphrodite warns him not to
  40. Dionysus
    • God of the 'sap' of life and male fertility (ch. 10)
    • Represents the uninhibited aspects of human life (ie. drunkeness, unrestrained sexuality...)
    • Was the antithisis of Greek logic/reason and was therefore resisted by many
    • Probably from eastern origins
    • Son of Semele who was tricked by Hera into seeing Zeus in his full greatness, which killed her, then Zeus sewed the fetus she was carrying to his leg and that became Dionysus
  41. Semelê
    Mother of Dionysus; tricked by Hera into asking to see Zeus in his full glory, which killed her when she was preggers with Dionysus (ch. 10)
  42. Ino
    Wife of Athamas of Orchomenus, sister of Semelê; given the infant Dionysus to raise. Driven insane by Hera. (ch. 10)
  43. Nymphs of Nysa
    Raised Dionysus after he was rescued from Orchomenus (ch. 10)
  44. Bacchae
    "Bacchic women"; the frenzied women followers of Dionysys; also called Maenads (ch. 10)
  45. Maenads
    "Raving women"; the frenzied women followers of Dionysus; also called Bacchae (ch. 10)
  46. thyrsus
    • "Wand" carried by the followers of Dionysus (ch. 10)
    • Ususally consisting of a stick wond with ivy and topped with a pine cone
  47. Satyrs
    Half-human, half-goat male followers of Dionysus (ch. 10)
  48. Midas
    King in Phrygia; given the power by Dionysus to turn everything he touched into gold (ch. 10)
  49. Ariadnê
    • Wife of Dionysus, daughter of King Minos
    • abandoned by Theseus on Naxos on his way from Crete to Athens (ch. 10)
  50. Lycurgus
    • Thracian king who resisted Dionysus;
    • his is the earliest myth of many that record the fate of those who resisted the god (ch. 10), he goes crazy and tries to rape his own mother, kills his son, and then is carried off to a mountain were he is eaten alive by wild horse
  51. Minyads
    Daughters of King Minyas of Orchomenus who rejected Dionysus; punished by being driven to consume their own children (ch. 10)
  52. Proetids
    Daughters of King Proetus of Argos who were punished by Dionysus by being deluded into think they were crows (ch. 10)
  53. Agavê
    Sisters of Semelê and mother of Pentheus; punished in the Bacchae for having doubted the divinity of Semelê's lover and that of their child, Dionysus (ch. 10)
  54. Pentheus
    • King of Thebes in the Bacchae;
    • tried to stamp out Dionysus' cult in his city and actually arrestes Dionysus, he is then punished by being dismembered by the Maenads (ch. 10)
  55. Thespis
    • The first actor, accorind got Aristotle; first to write plays in first person
    • played a key role in the evolution from dithyramb to tragedy (ch. 10)
  56. Heracles
    • Great strongman hero of the Greeks;
    • son of Zeus and the mortal Alcmena (ch. 14)
    • Persecuted by Hera, his cousin, Eurystheus, ends up being King and he is forced to perform the 12 labours for him in order repent for killing his wife and 3 sons
  57. Alcmena
    • Daughter of Electryon and mother of Heracles (ch. 14)
    • Is tricked into sleeping with Zeus and her husband, Amphitryon, in the same night, this makes her pregnant with twins one half-god (Heracles) and one normal (Iphicles)
  58. Eurystheus
    Son of Sthenelus; cousin of Heracles, for whom the hero had to perfom the 12 labours (ch. 14)
  59. Amphitryon
    Son of Alcaeus; husband of Alcmena, the mother of Heracles (ch. 14)
  60. Megara
    Daughter of Creon of Thebes, and first wife of Herables, killed by him in a fit of madness brought on by Hera (ch. 14)
  61. The Nemean Lion
    One of the 12 labours, from which Heracles got his customary lion's pelt and club (ch. 14)
  62. The Hydra
    One of the 12 labours, from which Heracles got the poison which he used on his arrows and which evenually kills him (ch. 14)
  63. Ceryneian deer
    One of the 12 labours, which led to a quarrel with Artemis and Apollo (ch. 14)
  64. Erymanthian boar
    One of the 12 labours; one of the many monsters plaguing the earth destroyed by Heracles (ch. 14)
  65. Pholus
    A parergon of Heracles; a friendly centaur accidentally killed by one of Heracle's poisoned arrows (ch. 14)
  66. The Augean Stables
    One of the 12 labours; Augeas owned a filthy barn that needed a good cleaning (ch. 14)
  67. Stymphalian Birds
    One of the 12 labours; bronzed-beaked, man-eating birds shot by Heracles with his poisoned arrows (ch. 14)
  68. horses of Diomedes
    One of the 12 labours; Diomedes was thrown by Heracles to his own man-eating horses (ch. 14)
  69. Admetus
    Needed to find someone to dies in his place; his wife, Alcestis, is the only one who volunteered (ch. 14)
  70. Alcestis
    Devoted wife of Admetus; willingly dies in his place and is brought back from the dead by Heracles (ch. 14)
  71. The Girdle of Hippolyta
    One of the 12 labours; Hippolyta was a ruler of the Amazons and her girdle was demanded by Eurystheus' daughter (ch. 14)
  72. The Cattle of Geryon
    One of the 12 labours; Geryon's red cattled were demanded by Eurytheus; during the course of which, Heracles set up the Pillars of Heracles (ch.14)
  73. Cacus
    A parergon of Heracles; monster who tried to steal some of the cattle Heracles had taken from Greyon (ch. 14)
  74. Apples of the Hesperides
    One of the 12 labours; apples of the nymphs of the west demanded by Euystheus; Heracles must hold up the sky while Atlas retrieves the apples; during the course of this labour Heracles battled Antaeus over Busiris
  75. Antaeus
    A parergon of Heracles; giant wrestler who drew his strength from contact with the earth; overcome by Heracles, who crushed him while holding him in the air
  76. Busiris
    A parergon of Heracles; king in Egypt who tried to sacrifice Heracles, but who was killed himself
  77. Cerberus
    One of the twelve labours; monstrous dog who guarded the entrance to the underworld, Heracles dragged it to the upper world
  78. Iolê
    Daughter of Eurytus and sought by Heracles; brings about his death when Deianira sees her in a train of captive women
  79. Omphalê
    Queen of Lydia whom Heracles served as "punishment" for having killed Iphitus in violation of Xenia, he is basically her sex monkey and she likes to make him wear women's clothes...
  80. Cercopes
    Highwaymen defeated by Heracles, they mock his "black buttocks" and he thinks they are funny so he lets them go
  81. Acheloüs
    • River god who attacks Deianira as he carries her across a river; defeated by Heracles
    • Gets Deianira to mix his blood and seman and tells her it is a lover potion, this "potion" eventually kills Heracles
  82. Deianira
    Sister of Meleager and second wife of Heracles; mistakenly brought about his death when deceived by the dying Nessus...she poisons him
  83. Heraclids
    Sons of Heracles; thought to be the ancestors of the Dorians by the ancient Greeks
  84. Theseus
    • Son of Aethra and Aegeus/Poseidon; national hero of the Athenians
    • Performs some not-so-impressive labours:
    • 1.Periphetes, the Clubber
    • 2.Sinis, the Pinebender
    • 3.Cormmyonian sow
    • 4.Sciron
    • 5.Circyon
    • 6.Procrustes
  85. Cecrops
    First king in Athens; brought civilization to the Athenian people; depicted as half-man, half-snake
  86. Erichthonius
    Half-man, half-snake product of the spilled semen of Hephaestus; and early king of Athens
  87. Cephalus
    Son of Hersê, a daughter of Cecrops, and Hermes; his marriage with Procris was fraught with suspicion and ended in disaster when he accidently speared her
  88. Procris
    Daughter of Erechtheus, and early king of Athens, and wife of Cephalus; her marriage with Cephalus was fraught with suspicion and ended in disaster, she suspected he was having an affair and he accidently speared her
  89. Laelaps
    The magical dog who always caught what it was chasing; given as a gift to Procris by Minos, king of Crete; ended in a paradoxical pursuit with the magical fox that could never be caught
  90. Procnë
    Daughter of Pandion, and early king of Athens, and wife of Tereus; killed her own son Itys to avenge Tereus' rape and mutilation of her sister Philomela
  91. Philomela
    • Daughter of Pandion, an early king of Athens, and sister of Procnë; she was raped and mutilated (tongue cut out) by Tereus, Procnë's husband who locked her away
    • She managed to tell her sister what happened by weaving the tale in a tapestry
  92. Tereus
    King of Thessaly; given Procnê as his wife by Pandion; his rape and mutilation of her sister Philomela led to the death of his son Itys by Procnê
  93. Itys
    Son of Tereus and Procnê; killed by his mother in revenge for Tereus' rape and mutilation of Philomela, Procnê's sister
  94. Erechtheus
    An early king of Athens; best known for his children: Procris, Orithyia,and Cecrops II, the latter of whim is the grandfather of Aegeus, father of Theseus
  95. Aegeus
    Son of Pandion II and father of Theseus; sonless, he traveled to Delphi;stopping in Troezen on the way back, he impregnated Aethra, daughter of the king, their son was Theseus
  96. Aethra
    Mother of Theseus and daughter of Pittheus, the King of Troezen, who, understanding the meaning of Delphi's obscure oracle to Aegeus, connived to have her impregnated by him
  97. Procrustes
    Villain overcome by Theseus on his way from Troezen to Athens; murdered his victims by putting them on a bed that never fit
  98. Amazonomachy
    Battle of the Athenians and the invading Amazons; battled provoked by Theseus' abduction of their Queen Antiopê; later comes to symbolize Athen's victory over the Persians
  99. Hippolytus
    Son of Theseus by Antiopê, Queen of the Amazons; falsely accused by Phaedra, Theseus' new wife, of having attempted to rape her, he is killed by Poseidon, who answers Theseus' prayer
  100. Phaedra
    Wife of Theseus and stepmother to Hippolytus; inflicted with a shameful lust for Hippolytus and rebuffed by him, she kills herself, leaving behind a letter falsely accusing Hippolytus of having tried to rape her
  101. Bellerophon
    Parallel to the Hippolytus false-accusation motif; having rebuffed the wife of the king at Corinth, the king tries to kill him
  102. Pirithoüs
    King in Thessaly, opponent of Theseus who, like Enkidu and Gilgamesh, becomes his companion in a number of adventures
  103. Lapiths
    Thessialian people, whose king Pirithoüs, is a companion of Theseus; involved in a famous battle against the Centaurs that erupts at a wedding: the "Battle of the Centaurs and the Lapiths" (aka the Centauromachy)
  104. Centaurs
    Race of half-man half-horse creatures; offspring of Ixion; mostly dangerous and wild, some are good
  105. Pisistratus
    Democratic tyrant of late 6th century Athens; responsible for promoting the myths of Theseus and identifying them with democratic ideology
  106. Europa
    Daughter of Agenor, taken away by Zeus who disguised himself as a bull; brothers are sent looking for her; becomes queen of Crete
  107. Minos
    Son of Europa and Zeus; husband of Pasphae king of Crete during its mythic zenith; leads his forces successfully against Athens
  108. Pasiphaë
    Wife of Minos, afflicted with a lust for the bull sent by Poseidon
  109. Daedalus
    Craftsman from Athens who built the Labyrinth, among other things
  110. Minotaur
    Half-man, half-bull monster born from the union between Pasiphaë and Poseidon's bull; locked in the Labyrinth and eventually killed by Theseus
  111. Labyrinth
    Inescapable underground maze on Crete built by Daedalus to house the Minotaur
  112. Nisus
    King of Megara betrayed by his daughter to Minos, who was attacking his city
  113. Scylla
    Daughter of Nisus, king of Megara, who betrayed him to Minos who was attacking the city; when betrayed by Minos in turn, she became the clipper bird (Ciris)
  114. Icarus
    Rash son of Daedalus who died when the wax that held his wings together melted
  115. Boeotia
    "Cowland"; area in Greece to the northwest of Attic; its principal city of Thebes is richly productive in myth
  116. Sparti
    "Sown-men"; so-called because they sprang from the dragon's teeth sown by Cadmus; reputed ancestors of important aristocratic clans in Thebes
  117. Antiopê
    Mother by Zeus of Amphion and Sethus; pursued by Nycteus her father, Lycus, her uncle
  118. Amphion
    One of Antiopê's twin sons; ruled in Thebes with his brother, Zethus; unloke Zethus, he was devoted to music
  119. Zethus
    One of Antiopê's twin sons; ruled in Thebes with his brother, Amphion; unlike Amphion, he was a man of ranching and practical affairs
  120. Dirce
    Wife of Lycus; tormented Antiopê, mother of Amphion and Zethus, until she herself was put to death by the twins
  121. Laius
    Son of Labdacus and father of Oedipus; tried to avert the prophecy that he would be killed by his son, but in so trying, fulfilled it
  122. Jocasta
    Wife of Laius and mother/wife of Oedipus; kills herself when she learns truth of what has happened; called Epicastê by Homer
  123. Oedipus
    "Swollen-foot"; son of Laius and Jocasta; raised in Corinth, he returns to Thebes where is unknowingly fulfills the prophecy that he will kill his father and marry his mother
  124. Adrastus
    King of Argos, and sole survivor of an Argive expedition against Thebes to put Polynices on the throne
  125. Tydeus
    Exile from Calydon and one of the sever leaders against Thebes; was nearly made immortal by Athena, but Amphiaraüs thwarted it
  126. Polynices
    Brother of Eteocles and son of Oedipus; died during the Argive expedition against Thebes to force his bother out
  127. Amphiaraus
    Prophet and one of the Argive leaders against Thebes; took part even though he knew he would die
  128. Haemon
    Son of Creon; supported Antigonê's case against his father; killed himself when he realized she was dead
  129. Epigoni
    The sons of the seven Argive "Seven Against Thebes"; successfully attacked Thebes and ousted the king Laodamas
  130. Antigone
    A daughter of Oedipus; defied Creon's order that the body of her brother Polynices remain unburied
  131. Eriphyle
    Wife of Amphiaraüs, who orders him to participate in the Seven Against Thebes campaign
  132. Eteocles
    One of Oedipus' sons; defended Thebes against a coalition of kings led by his brother, Polynices
  133. Ismene
    Daughter of Oedipus; is reluctant to help her sister, Antigonê, to defy Creon's order and bury their brother, Polynices
  134. Thessaly
    Area of northern Greece; source of the myth of Jason and the Argonauts
  135. Iolcus
    Port city in Thessaly; home of Jason
  136. Appollonius of Rhodes
    Third century BC author of the Argonautica; his poetry reflects the Hellenistic aesthetic of minute descriptions and complicated characters
  137. Jason
    Son of Aeson, hero of the Argonautica
  138. Athamas
    King of Athamas; nearly tricked by his wife Nephelê into sacrificing his son Phrixus
  139. Phrixus
    Son of Athamas nearly sacrificed by his father; taken to Colchis on the Black Sea by a golden ram that appeared at the last moment
  140. Hellê
    Daughter of Athamas; taken away on the back of a golden ram; she fell off into a sea which thereafter is called the "Hellespont"
  141. Hellespont
    "Sea of Hellê"; so called because Hellê, the daughter of Athamas, fell into this body of water after having been taken away by a golden ram
  142. Colchis
    Distant town on the Black Sea; kingdom of Aeëtes, who had the golden fleece Jason seeks in the Argonautica
  143. Tyro
    Mother of Pelias and Neleus by Poseidon and Aeson, the father of Jason, by Cretheus
  144. Pelias
    King in Iolcus who imprisons his half-brother Aeson and arranges to sent Jason on the supposedly hopeless quest for the golden fleece; killed by his daughters who were tricked by Medea into cutting him up into pieces
  145. Chiron
    Centaur on Mount Pelion who raised Jason
  146. Argo
    Name of Jason's ship
  147. Boreads
    Sons of the North Wind (Zetes and Calaïs); able to fly and liberate Phineus from the Harpies
  148. Phineus
    King of Salmydessus and prophet; offended Zeus by being too generous with his prophecies; his torment by the Harpies was ended by Jason and his crew
  149. Symplegades
    "Clashing Rocks" that barred access to the Black Sea; cleared by the Argonauts with the help of Athena
  150. Medea
    Daughter of King Aeëtes who helps Jason get the fleece
  151. Apsyrtus
    Son of Aeëtes and brother of Medea; joined in the pursuit of Jason and Medea after the fleece had been filched; he was either killed by Jason, or chopped into bits which were thrown overboard piece by piece to delay the pursuit of Aeëtes
  152. Talus
    Bronze giant filled with ichor that guarded the island of Crete; overcome by Jason who drained him of the ichor
  153. Aetolia
    Area in Greece to the north of the western opening of the Corinthian gulf; main city is Calydon
  154. Calydon
    Main city in the area of Aetolia, home of King Oeneus and location of the famous boar hunt
  155. Althaea
    Mother of Meleager; in a rage over his murder of her brothers, she threw the magic log that protected him into the fire, thus killing him
  156. Meleager
    Son of Oeneus and Althaea of Calydon; killed the boar that was ravaging his land, but violated the code of the hunt by giving its skin to Atalanta, whom he wished to seduce; eventually this brought about his death
  157. Atalanta
    Speedy athlete who took part in the boar hunt at Calydon; eventually married to Melanion who overcame her in a foot race; punished for their lusty consummation of the marriage in the precinct of Zeus by being turned into lions
  158. Pelops
    Son of Tantalus, and victor of Oenomaüs in the chariot race; father of Atreus and Thyestes
  159. Oenomaüs
    King of Pisa and father of Hippodamia; defeated and killed in chariot race against Pelops
  160. Hippodamia
    Daughter of Oenomaüs of Pisa; prize of the famed chariot race won by Pelops with the help of Myrtilus, Oenomaüs' aid
  161. Thyestes
    A son of Pelops; quarrels with brother Atreus over the kingship in Mycenae; tricked into eating his own sons by Atreus at the Banquet of Thyestes
  162. Aegisthus
    Avenger son of Thyestes by his daughter Pelopia
  163. Atreus
    Son of Pelops and father of Agamemnon and Menulaüs; quarrels with brother Thyestes over who rules in Mycenae
  164. Menelaüs
    Son of Atreus and brother of Agamemnon; rules in Sparta after being awarded Helen by Tyndareüs; one of the generals in the Trojan War
  165. Agamemnon
    Son of Atreus and brother of Menelaüs; rules in Mycenae; leader of the Greek forces in the Trojan War
  166. Tyndareüs
    King of Sparta, husband of Leda and father of Clytemnestra, and Castor, and stepfather of Helen and Polydeuces (Pollux)
  167. Leda
    Mother by Zeus and Tyndareüs of Helen, Clytemnestra, and Castor and Polydeuces (Pollux)
  168. Polydeuces
    Son of Leda and Zeus; brother of Castor, the ther Dioscuri
  169. Helen
    Daughter of Zeus and Leda; married to Menelaüs and taken to Troy by Paris
  170. Castor
    Son of Leda and Tyndareüs; brother of Polydeuces; the other Dioscuri
  171. Clytemnestra
    Daughter of Tyndareüs and Leda; married to Agamemnon
  172. Oath of Tyndareüs
    Taken by the Greek kings to protect the one king who would finally marry Helen
  173. Peleus
    King of Phthia and father of Achilles
  174. Ajax
    Son of Telamon of Salamis (unless qualified by "the Lesser", "Ajax" always refers to Ajax the Greater); one of the most formidable Greek warriors in the Trojan War
  175. Hecabê
    Wife of Priam, King of Troy
  176. Aulis
    Bay in Thessaly where the Greek forces mustered for the Trojan War; they were pinned down by contrary winds sent by Artemis there until Agamemnon sacrificed his daughter
  177. Telemachus
    Son of Odysseus of Ithaca; used by Palamedes to expose Odysseus' feigned insanity
  178. Palamedes
    Greek warrior noted for cleverness; credited with having created the alphabet among other things; exposed Odysseus' feigned madness to avoid the Trojan War
  179. Calchas
    Prophet of the Greeks during the Trojan War
  180. Philoctetes
    Warrior abandoned by the Greeks on Lemnos
  181. Chryseïs
    Agamemnon's war prize demanded back by Apollo for Chryses, his priest and father of the girl
  182. Briseïs
    Achilles' war prize demanded by Agamemnon to compensate for his loss of Chryseïs; this is the proximate cause of Achilles' wrath
  183. Andromachê
    Wife of Hector; her pathos-filled speech in which she tried to persuade Hector to remain in the city wall is one of the most famous passages in all literature
  184. Penthesilea
    Leader of a force of Amazons on behalf of the Trojans; killed by Achilles
  185. Neoptolemus
    Son of Achilles; kills a son of Priam in front of his father's eyes
  186. Laocoön
    Trojan priest of Poseidon who tries to warn the Trojans against the Trojan Horse
  187. Polyxena
    Youngest daughter of Priam; sacrificed after the war to the ghost of Achilles
  188. Orestes
    Avenging son of Agamemnon; tried and acquitted of the murder of his mother in Athens before the first Court of the Areopagus
  189. Electra
    Faithful daughter of Agamemnon; assists her brother Orestes to exact revenge in Mycenae
  190. Furies
    Ancient pursuer of those who spill familial blood; chase Orestes to Athen, where they are finally disabled
  191. Eumenides
    "Kindly Ones"; new name for the Furies after being tamed by Athena
  192. Lotus Eaters
    People encountered by Odysseus; the plant they ear induces a forgetful bliss that nearly costs Odysseus his men
  193. Cyclopes
    Race of one-eyed, barbaric giants
  194. Polyphemus
    Cyclops encountered and overcome by Odysseus
  195. Aeolus
    King of the winds; gives Odysseus a bag that contains the evil winds that will delay his return home; his men, thinking the bag contains treasures, foolishly open it
  196. Laestrygonians
    Race of cannibals, the encountered with whom anticipates and contrasts with Odysseus' reception on Phaeacia
  197. Circê
    Witch who changes Odysseus' men to swine
  198. Sirens
    Harpy-like beasts whose song lures sailors to their deaths on the shores' Odysseus has his men bind him to the mast so that he can hear their song
  199. Charybdis
    Enormous whirlpool just opposite the perch of the monster Scylla; Odysseus must navigate through the two
  200. Scylla
    Man-eating monster whose perch is just opposite the great whirlpool, the Charybdis; Odysseus must navigate through the two
  201. Calypso
    Beautiful nymph on the island of Ogygia with whom Odysseus stays for seven years; she offers Odysseus immortality if he will stay
  202. Phaeacians
    Mythical sea-faring people, on whose island Odysseus is washed ashore after Calypso; Odysseus recounts his earlier adventures in their court
  203. Nausicaä
    Daughter of the king of Phaeacia; she is induced by Athena to go to the shore where Odysseus has washed up; she brings him to the palace
  204. Eumaeus
    The faithful swineherd on Ithaca with whom Odysseus stays when first arriving home
  205. Euryclea
    Odysseus' former nursemaid on Ithaca; she recognizes Odysseus by his scar
  206. Telemachus
    Son of Odysseus; helps his father defeat the suitors
  207. numen, numina
    "Nodders(s)"; spirits in early Roman religion that inhabit and control the operation of individual things or processes; could be summoned to work for human beings through the correct observation of ritual (the sacrificium)
  208. Janus
    Well-known Roman numen (q.v.) of passageways; represented as a man with two faces, one looking forward, the other back
  209. Jupiter
    Original Roman numen (q.v.) of the sky; equated by the Romans with Zeus
  210. Juno
    Original Roman numen of the women and the family; equated with the Greek Hera
  211. Ceres
    Original Romen numen of wheat; equated with the Greek Demeter
  212. Diana
    Roman numen of the wood, women and childbirth; equated with the Greek Artemis
  213. Mercury
    Roman name given to Hermes; name comes from the Latin work for "merchandise"
  214. Vulcan
    Original god of volcanic fire; equated by the Romans with the Greek Hephaestus
  215. Neptune
    Original Roman numen of water; came to be identified withe the Greek Poseidon, the god of the sea
  216. Mars
    Original protector god of the flocks; Roman Ares
  217. Minerva
    Etruscan numen of handicrafts; identified with Athena
  218. Faunus
    "Kindly one"; the numen of terror produced by isolated places
  219. Venus
    Roman numen of freshwater springs, gardening, and thereby fertility; the Roman Aphrodite
  220. Hercules
    Earliest foreign hero cult in Rome
  221. Lares
    Roman numina that protect the people in a household
  222. Penates
    Roman numina of the cupboard in a Roman house; protect food and implements of the household
  223. Vesta
    The Roman Hestia; protectress of the house and hearth, becomes a national cult, which reflects the centrality of the family in Roman social and political order, in which the state was conceived of as a very large family
  224. pietas
    "Loyalty, duty"; critical concept in Roman social and political order; embodied by Aeneas in Vergil's Aeneid
  225. Iulus
    Son of Aeneas; founds Alba Long and is the ancestor of the Julian line of Roman Emperors
  226. Dido
    Queen of Carthage; helps and is then abandoned by Aeneas
  227. Turnus
    Local king in Italy who opposes allowing Aeneas and his people to settle
  228. Livy
    Historian of Rome (Ab urbe condita); his early history of Rome glorifies the selfless devotion of its legendary heroes
  229. Romulus
    Son of Rhea Silvia and twin of Remus; kills his brother Remus to protect the walls of his new city, Rome
  230. Remus
    Son of Rhea Silvia and twin of Romulus; killed by his brother Romulus while ridiculing the walls of Romulus' new city: Rome
  231. Rhea Silvia
    Vestal Virgin and mother by Mars of Romulus and Remus
  232. Sabines
    Neighbouring people of the Romans whose daughters were abducted during a festival in Rome
  233. Tarpeia
    Daughter of a Roman commander bribed by their enemies, the Sabines; name given to a cliff in Rome where traitors were thrown to their deaths
  234. apotheosis
    "Becoming a god"; Romulus' apotheosis is the mythic paradigm for later Roman emperors
  235. Horatii and the Curiatii
    Two sets of the tree brothers, who fought against each other to settle a war between the Romans and the Albans; Horatii were Roman, the Curiatii were Alban
  236. Tarquin the Proud
    Last of the Etruscan kings in Rome; brought down because of the violence of his son Sextus Tarquin
  237. Lucretia
    Dutiful and chaste wife of Tarquin Collatinus; her rape by Sextus Tarquin, a son of Tarquin the Proud, brought down the Etruscan rule in Rome, after while Rome was a Republic
  238. Brutus
    A leader in the revolt against Tarquin the Proud and hero of the Republic
  239. Horatius
    Early mythic hero of the Republic; defended a bridge against the advancing enemy single-handedly until it could be burned by the Romans in retreat
  240. Scaevola
    "Lefty"; Early mythic hero of the Roman Republic; so called because when captured and threatened with torture by the enemy, he thrust his right hand in a fire to show his pietas to Rome
  241. Coriolanus
    Hero of Rome, who was exiled for his arrogance to men of common origins; withdrew an army he was leading against Rome when his wife begged him to spare her city and their children
  242. Cincinnatus
    Mythic hero of the Roman Republic; called to assume a dictatorship to meet a threat against Rome, he defeated the army and returned to his little farm within sixteen days
  243. triumph
    Structures, stylized celebratory parade given in Rome for a distinguished military achievement
Card Set
Greek and Roman Final
Final studying
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