Learning

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Anonymous
ID:
124151
Filename:
Learning
Updated:
2011-12-17 03:23:56
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Psych
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Psych
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  1. learning
    the modification through experience of pre-existing behavior and understanding
  2. habituation
    the process of adapting to stimuli that do not change
  3. classical conditioning
    a procedure in which a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a stimulus that elicits a reflex or other response until until the neutral stimulu alone comes to elicit a similar response
  4. unconditioned stimulus
    a stimulus that elicits a response without conditioning
  5. conditioned stimulus
    the originally neutral stimulus that, through pairing with the unconditioned stimulus, comes to elicit a conditioned response
  6. unconditioned response
    the automatic or unlearned reaction to a stimulus
  7. conditioned response
    the response that the conditioned stimulus elicits
  8. extinction
    the gradual disappearance of a conditioned response when a conditioned stimulus no longer predicts the appearance of an unconditioned stimulus
  9. reconditioning
    the quick relearning of a conditioned response following extintion
  10. spontaneous recovery
    the reappearance of the conditioned response after extinction and without further pairings of the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
  11. stimulus generalization
    a phenomenon in which a conditioned response is elicited by stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus
  12. stimulus discrimination
    a process through which individuals learn to differentiate among similar stimuli and respond appropriately to each one
  13. second-order conditioning
    a phenomenon in which a conditioned stimulus acts like an unconditioned stimulus, creating conditioned stimuli out of events associated with it
  14. law of effect
    a law stating that if a response made in the presence of a particular stimulus is followed by staifaction, that response is more likely the next time the stimulus is encountered
  15. instrumental conditioning
    a process through which an organism learns to respond to the environment in a way that produces positive consequences and avoids negative ones
  16. operant conditioning
    a process through which an organism learns to respond to the environment in a way that produces positive consequences and avoids negative ones
  17. operant
    a response that has some effect on the world
  18. reinforcer
    a stimulus even that increases the probability that the response that immediately preceded it will occur again
  19. positive reinforcers
    stimuli that strenghen a response if they follow that response
  20. negative reinforcer
    the removal of unpleasant stimuli, such as pain
  21. escape conditioning
    a type of learning in which an organism learns to make a particular response in order to terminate an aversive stimulus
  22. avoidance conditioning
    a type of learning in which an organism responds to a signal in a way that prevents exposure to an aversive stimulus
  23. discriminative stimuli
    stimuli that signal whether reinforcement is available if a certain response is made
  24. shaping
    the process of reinforcing responses that come successively closer to the desired response
  25. primary reinforcers
    reinforcers that meet an organsim's basic needs, such as food and water
  26. secondary reinforcer
    a reward that people or animals learn to like
  27. continuous reinforcement schedule
    a pattern in which a reinforcer is delivered every time a particular response occurs
  28. partial reinforcement schedule
    a pattern in which a reinforcer is administered only some of the time after after a particular response occurs
  29. fixed-ratio schedule
    a partila reinforcement schdule that provides reinforcement follwing a fixed number of responses
  30. variable-ratio schedule
    a partial reinforcement scheduleb that provides reinforcement for the first response that occurs after some fixed time has passed since the last reward
  31. fixed-interval schedule
    a partial reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement for the first response that occurs after some fixed time has passed since the last reward
  32. variable-interval
    a partial reinforcement schdule that provides reinforcement for the first response after varying periods of time
  33. extinction
    the gradual disappearance of operant behavior due to elimination of rewarding for that behavior
  34. partial reinforcement extintion effect
    a phenomenon in which behaviors learned under a partial reinforcement schdule are more difficult to extinguish than behaviors learned on a continuous reinforcement schedule
  35. punishment
    presentation of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a pleasant stimulus
  36. learned helplessness
    learning that responses do not affect consequences, resulting in failure to try to exert control over the environment
  37. latent learning
    learning that is not demonstrated at the time it occurs
  38. cognitive map
    a mental representation of the environment
  39. insight
    a sudden understanding about what is required to solbe a problem
  40. observational learning
    learning how to perform new behaviors by watching others
  41. vicarious conditioning
    learning conditioned responses by watching what happens to others

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