vet-tech-a-p-1-ch-6-skeletal-system

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darlene.m.nelson
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124220
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vet-tech-a-p-1-ch-6-skeletal-system
Updated:
2011-12-17 17:12:55
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vet tech anatomy physiology chapter skeletal system set
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vet tech anatomy physiology 1 chapter 6 skeletal system set
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  1. Skeletal System
    aka Musculoskeletal system
  2. Os-
    bone
  3. Osteo-
    bone
  4. Arthro-
    joints (places where bones meet)
  5. Arthti-
    joints (places where bones meet)
  6. Chrondr-
    cartilage
  7. Tendo-
    tendons
  8. Skeletal system organs
    • bone
    • muscle
  9. Skeletal system functions
    • support - soft tissues
    • protection - organs
    • leverage - allows movement
    • storage - mineral, energy
    • blood cell formation
  10. Histology of bone
    • connective tissue
    • osteoblasts
    • osteocytes
    • osteoclasts
  11. Osteoblasts
    form new bone
  12. Osteocytes
    • maintain formed bone
    • live in lacunae
  13. Osteoclasts
    • destroy bone in a process called remodeling
    • osteoblasts can use the waste product to make new bone (eg in other places)
    • release calcium to build bone in fetus
  14. Skeletal system vascular supply
    • highly vascular
    • Volksmans Canals
    • - perpendicular to long axis (cross-wise)
    • Haversian Canals
    • - parallel to long axis
    • Nutrient Foramina
    • - grossly visible on diaphysis (shaft)
    • - artery goes in here
  15. Bone formation
    • 2 methods:
    • - endochondral - inside cartilage
    • - intramembranous bone formation - inside membranes
  16. Endochondral
    • cartilage template
    • - appendicular skeleton mostly
    • primary growth center
    • - in center - nutrient foramen hole
    • secondary growth center
    • - at ends
    • - when bone gets too long, turns into...
    • growth plates
    • approx 3rd trimester:
    • - blood vessel intrudes into cartilage
    • - then cells shift from chondroblasts to osteoblasts (differentiation -> specialization)
  17. Intramembranous Bone Formation
    • fibrous connective tissue
    • flat bones of the skull
    • allows for further development of the brain
    • fontanelles:
    • - humans close at approx 1 year
    • - dogs close approx 1 week
    • chihuahuas - lots of skull misformations
  18. Divisions of the skeletal system
    • axial
    • appendicular
    • visceral
  19. Axial skeleton
    • bones of the head and trunk:
    • - skull
    • - vertebrae
    • - hyoid bone
    • - ribs
    • - sternum (sternabrae)
  20. Appendicular skeleton
    • limbs:
    • - thoracic limb
    • - pelvic limb
    • - pelvis
  21. Visceral skeleton
    • skeleton of the hollow organs
    • os cordis - in cow heart
    • os penis - walrus is ~ 3 ft long
    • os rostri - snouted animals, e.g. pigs; stiffens snout
  22. Joint
    • junction between two bones
    • diseases of musculoskeletal system are mostly joint related
    • - once in a while, broken bones, although less common since leash laws
  23. Articular
    describes surfaces of joints
  24. Arthrology
    study of joints
  25. Arthritis
    • inflammation of joints
    • types:
    • - septic - info
    • - immune mediated - caused by immune system
    • - degenerative - caused by wear & tear
  26. Types of joints
    • immovable
    • slightly moveable
    • freely moveable
  27. Immovable joints
    • fibrous joints
    • aka syntharthroses - held together tightly
    • bones held together in an immoveable joint of fibrous connective tissue
    • - bones of skull - sutures
    • - equine metacarpals & metatarsals aka splint bones
  28. Slightly moveable joints
    • cartilaginous joints
    • aka amphiarthroses
    • slight rocking motion
    • symphyses:
    • - pelvis
    • - mandible
    • - intervertebral
  29. Freely moveable joints
    • synovial joints
    • aka diarthroses
    • multiple structures to give support for movement in all directions:
    • - articular surfaces
    • - joint capsule
    • - ligaments
  30. Articular surfaces in synovial joints
    • articular cartilage
    • - hyaline cartilage
  31. Joint capsule in synovial joints
    • defines joint space
    • fibrous outer layer
    • synovial membrane:
    • - inner layer
    • - produces synovial fluid - normally thick, clear, tacky - like mucus
  32. Ligaments in synovial joints
    hold bone to bone
  33. Synovial joint movements
    • flexion - decreases angle between the bones
    • extension - increases the angle between the bones
    • adduction - movement towards the median plane
    • abduction - movement away from the median plane
    • rotation - twisting of a part around its own axis; hoofed mammals have very little capacity to rotate
    • circumduction - movement of a limb causing the distal extremity to move in a circular motion
  34. Types of synovial joints
    • hinge
    • gliding
    • pivot
    • ball & socket
  35. Hinge joint
    • ginglymus
    • can only flex & extend
    • eg elbow
  36. Gliding joint
    • arthroidal or rocking joints
    • flexion & extension in animals
    • adbuction & adduction in humans & animals
    • carpal joints
    • - knee in horse
    • - carpus in dog & cat
    • - wrist in human
  37. Pivot joints
    • trochoid joints
    • bones pivot or rotate against each other
    • rotation
    • C1-C2 - cervical vertebrae
    • atlanto-axial joint - joint between atlas & axis
    • "no" joint
  38. Ball and socket joints
    • spheroidal joints
    • all movements possible
    • shoulder & hip joints
    • greatest range of motion, so most likely to wear out in older animals (osteoarthritis)
    • hip displaysia (flattened joint) can lead to osteoarthritis
    • can tell on radiograph
    • - healthy hip - femur head fits nice & tight in acetabulum
    • osteophytes - body makes bony spurs to try to stabilize bone

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