Chemistry Final 12/19

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Chemistry Final 12/19
2011-12-17 17:15:52
Chemistry 12 19

Questions from the Chemistry final study guide handed out in class.
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  1. Formula to find temperature in Kelvin.
    T in Kelvin = T in Celsius + 273
  2. Formula to find temperature in Celsius.
    T in Celsius = T in Kelvin - 273
  3. Formula to find temperature in Fahrenheit.
    T in Fahrenheit = 1.80(T in Celsius) + 32
  4. Formula to find temperature in Celsius.
    T in Celsius = Temperature in fahrenheit -32 divided by 1.80
  5. Density formula
    Mass divided by volume.
  6. Formula to find specific heat.
    Specific heat = Energy required divided by m x change in temperature
  7. List the six diatomic elements.
    H N O F Cl Br (Subscripted 2)
  8. Major points of Dalton's Atomic Theory
    • 1. Elements are made of tiny particles calle atoms.
    • 2. All atoms of a given element are identical.
    • 3. The atoms of a given element are different from those of any other element.
    • 4. Atoms of an element can combine with atoms of other elements to create compounds. A compound always has the same relative numbers and types of atoms.
    • 5. Atoms are indivisiible in chemical processes. That is, atoms are not created or destroyed in chemical reactions. A chemical reaction simply changes the way atoms are grouped together.
  9. Convert between standard (decimal) notation and scientific notation (both directions).
    positive <---- . ----> negative
  10. Count significant figures.
    • Use the equivalence statement.
    • Decide direction of change.
    • Solve equation.
    • Siggie Figgies.
  11. Use dimensional analysis to convert between English and metric, given conversion factors.
    Use the equivalence statement.Decide direction of change.Solve equation.Siggie Figgies.
  12. Perform calculations (+,-,x, div), and express your result with the proper number of significant digits.
    The number of siggie figgies are limited to the least precise number's amount of sig figs.
  13. How to identify physical and chemical changes. (Differences.)
    A physical change does not change the chemical composition; a chemical change does.
  14. Determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons contained in various atoms and ions.
    • Atomic number = the number of protons.
    • The number of electrons = the number of protons.
    • The mass number = the number of protons and neutrons.
  15. List the four clues (evidences) that a chemical reactions has occurred.
    Color change, gas, temperature change, and formation of a precipitate.
  16. The mole.
  17. Avogadro's number.
  18. Define precipitation.
    The process that forms a precipitate.
  19. Define insoluble.
    A solid where such a tiny amount dissolves in water that it is undetectable with the naked eye.
  20. Define molecular equation.
    The equation that shows the complete formulas of all reactants and products.
  21. Define complete ionic equation.
    The equation that represents the actual forms of the reactants and products. All substances that are strong electrolytes are represented as ions.
  22. Define net ionic equation.
    The equation that included only those components that are involved in the reactions. (Removed spectators.)
  23. Define acid.
    A substance that produces H+ ions (protons) when it is dissolved in water.
  24. Define base.
    A substance that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) in water.
  25. Define neutralization.
    Acid-base reactions.
  26. Define salt.
    The product of an strong acid and strong base reaction.
  27. Define oxidation-reduction.
    A reaction that involves a transfer of electrons.
  28. Define complete combustion.
    A chemical reaction that involves oxygen producing energery (heat) so rapidly that a flame results.
  29. Define atomic mass unit.
  30. Define molar mass.
    The mass (in grams) of 1 mol of the substance.
  31. Define empirical formula.
    A formula that represents the simpliest ratio of atoms in a compound.
  32. Define molecular formula.
    The formula that gives the composition of molecules present.
  33. Define solubility.
    A solid's ability to dissolve in water.