vet-tech-a-p-1-ch-7-muscular-system

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darlene.m.nelson
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124223
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vet-tech-a-p-1-ch-7-muscular-system
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2011-12-17 17:18:09
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vet tech anatomy physiology chapter muscular system set
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vet tech anatomy physiology 1 chapter 7 muscular system set
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  1. Muscles
    • one of the 4 tissues
    • 3 types:
    • - cardiac
    • - visceral (smooth)
    • - skeletal (striated)
  2. Skeletal muscle
    • voluntary striated muscle
    • under concious control
    • associated with the skeleton
  3. Gross anatomy of skeletal muscle
    • belly - thick central portion
    • tendon - attachment to th bone
    • aponeurosis - connects muscle to muscle, e.g. linea alba
  4. Tendon
    muscle to bone attachment
  5. Ligament
    bone to bone attachement
  6. Muscle attachments
    • tendon is a continuation of the periosteum of the bone
    • - dense irregular CT (periosteum) into dense regular (CT) (start of tendon) into muscle
    • - continuous tissue
    • eg biceps originates at shoulder/clavicle, inserts at radius/ulna
    • eg trapezius originates at spinal process, inserts at humerus
  7. Origin
    stable end of muscle attachment
  8. Insertion
    movement end of muscle attachment
  9. Muscle actions
    • prime movers (agonists)
    • - directly produce desired movement, eg biceps to flex elbow
    • antagonists
    • - directly opposes motion of agonist, eg triceps to extend elbow
    • synergists
    • - assist the action of the prime mover
    • - give nuance, subtlety in movements
    • fixator
    • - stabilize joints to allow movement to take place
    • - moderates movement
    • every bone has paired muscles
    • if no synergists, fixators then we would move like toy soldiers
    • - requires brain development
  10. Naming muscles
    • action - flexor, extensor, adductor, abductor
    • shape - deltoids (triangle), trapezious (trapezoid)
    • location - brachii (upper arm), femori (upper leg), carpi (wrist)
    • fiber direction - rectus (straight), oblique (at an angle)
    • number of heads (cep) at origin - biceps, triceps, quadricecps
    • attachment sites - sternocephalicus
  11. Cutaneous muscles
    • superficial muscles
    • 1st layer just under the skin
    • can feel these through the skin
    • horses well-developed; humans not
    • muscles of the head and neck:
    • - masseter
    • - splenius
    • - trapezius
    • - brachiocephalicus
    • - sternocephalicus
  12. Masseter
    • closes jaw
    • importance in dogs - eosinophilic myositis - masseter painful, won't open mouth
  13. Splenius
    raises the head
  14. Trapezius
    raises the head
  15. Brachiocephalicus
    • extends neck
    • pulls forelimb forward
  16. sternocephalicus
    lowers the head
  17. Abdominal muscles
    • support the abdominal organs
    • flex & extend the spine
    • provide for the abdominal press
    • - urination
    • - defecation
    • - parturition
    • assist in respiration
    • - if diaphragm fails, you can use abdominal muscles to breathe for a little while
    • arranged in layers
    • in people, they allow you to stay upright
    • animals aren't as developed (extremely thin) as they don't use them
    • linea alba doesn't bleed; muscles will, so surgically want to stay on linea alba
  18. Abdominal muscle layers
    • external abdominal oblique - fibers @ angle
    • internal abdominal oblique
    • rectus abdominus
    • transversus abdominus
  19. Thoracic limb muscle
    • each component of thoracic limb skeleton has muscles associated
    • superficial muscles of the shoulder
    • - latissimus dorsi
    • - pectoralis
    • - deltoid
    • muscles of the brachium
    • - biceps brachii
    • - triceps brachii
    • muscles of the distal thoracic limbs
    • - extensor carpi radialis
    • - deep digital flexor
  20. Latissimus dorsi
    • spines of the vertebrae to humerus
    • flexes the shoulder - pulls the leg back
  21. Pectoralis
    • huge in horses
    • superficial and deep
    • sternum to humerus
    • adduction - holds legs in (together)
  22. Deltiod
    • lateral scapula to humerus
    • abducts (less in animal than human) and flexes (pulls it back) shoulders
  23. Biceps brachii
    • 2 heads
    • distal scapula to proximal raduis
    • flexion of the elbow
  24. Triceps brachii
    • 3 heads
    • distal scapula to proximal humerus - olecranon process
    • extends the elbow
  25. Extensor carpi radialis
    extend the carpus
  26. Deep digital flexor
    flexes the paw
  27. Pelvic limb muscles
    • muscles that move the hip
    • - gluteals
    • - hamstring
    • muscles that move the stifle
    • - quadriceps
    • muscles of the lower hind leg
    • - gastrocnemius
    • - tibialis
  28. Gluteals
    • pelvis (ilium mostly) to trochanters
    • think of rump roast
    • humans - butt muscles
    • extend the hip
  29. Hamstrings
    • semimembranous - half muscle, half membrane
    • semitendinous
    • biceps femoris - 2 headed on femur; think of ham for baking
    • attaches with membrane instead of tendon
    • caudal thigh
    • extend hip
    • flex stifle
  30. Quadriceps
    • big muscles
    • front of leg
    • one muscle - one tendon of insertion
    • 4 heads:
    • - rectus femoris - large straight muscle in front
    • - vastus laterlis
    • - vastus medius
    • - vastus intermedius
    • stifle extensors
    • largest muscle in the body
  31. Gastrocnemius
    • caudal - back of tibia
    • achilles tendon
    • tibia to calcaneous
    • extends tarsus (hock)
  32. Tibialis
    • cranial
    • tibia
    • flexes the tarsus (hock) - toe up to sky
  33. Muscles of respiration
    • inspiration - increases the size of the thorax
    • expiration - decreases the size of the thorax
    • inspiratory muscles
    • - diaphragm
    • - external intercostal muscles (between ribs ; think of BBQ ribs)
    • expiratory muscles
    • - internal intercostal muscles
    • - pennate - like feathers
  34. Skeletal muscle cells
    • cells - muscle fibers
    • cell membrane - sarcolemma (same as plasmalemma, different name)
    • multinucleate
    • myofibrils
    • - inside myofibers
    • - composed of protein filaments (actin & myosin)
    • sarcoplasmic reticulum - same as ER
    • transverse tubules (or T-tubes)
    • - channels for ion exchange
    • - calcium is main ion
    • skeletal muscle cells must be insulated from each other or all would fire at once (no fine movement)
  35. Sarcomere
    • contractile unit of striated muscle
    • racheting action
  36. Neuromuscular junction
    • skeletal muscles require nerve impulses to contract
    • neuromuscular junction or synapse - site where nerve fibers connect to muscle fibers
  37. Motor unit
    one nerve fiber and all of the muscle fibers (cells) it innervates
  38. Muscle physiology
    • nerve impulse causes the release of acetylcholine
    • acetylcholine binds to the sarcolemma
    • calcuim (Ca) is released into the sarcoplasm and diffuses into the myofibrils
    • Ca binds to the myosin & contraction begins
    • contraction & relaxation of the muscle require ATP
    • muscle needs Na, K, H20, Ca to work
  39. Characteristics of muscle contraction
    • all or nothing - each fiber either contracts completely or not at all
    • allows for a few fibers within a muscle to contract allowing for fine motor movement
    • controlled by the nervous system which learns how to control the muscles as baby
    • "muscle memory"
    • - once your muscles learn how to do something, they won't forget unless injured
    • - in injury other muscles will compensate
    • - even after healed will still use other muscles
    • - physical therapy retrains muscles to work correctly
  40. Muscle contraction
    • twitch contraction - individual fiber contraction
    • 3 phases:
    • - latent
    • -- brief hesitation between stimulus & actual contraction (10 ms)
    • -- time it takes for synaptic vesicles to release & bind
    • - contracting
    • -- movement within the sarcomere (40 ms)
    • - relaxation
    • -- 50 ms (as long to relax as to contract)
  41. Sarco-
    fleshy
  42. Cardiac muscle
    • found only in the heart
    • involuntary, striated muscle
    • branched
    • uninucleate
    • smaller than skeletal muscle cells
    • intercalated discs
    • - desmosomes & gap junctions
    • contraction occurs same way as skeletal muscle
  43. Cardiac muscle contraction
    • autorhythmicity - each cell contracts without stimulation
    • when cells touch, synchronize rate to fastest cell's rhythm
    • wavelike contraction
    • internal impulse conduction system, sino-atrial node, regulates heart rate
    • SA node = pacemaker
    • injury
    • - blunt trauma to chest - disrupts SA node - cells start beating individually
    • - HBC - 12-124 hours later, have arrhythmias - bruises develop & disrupt rhythm
    • cardiac muscle cells cannot be insulated or won't work
  44. Innervation of the heart
    • modifies the activity of the heart
    • autonomic nervous system
    • - parasympathetic
    • -- slows the heart rate
    • -- eg eat a big meal, vagus nerve increases blood flow to gut
    • - sympathetic
    • -- increases heart rate
    • -- fight or flight
    • -- eg scary music will make you react
  45. Smooth muscle
    • located in the walls of hollow organs and blood vessels
    • not striated
    • - still has actin & myosin, but arranged differently
    • involuntary
    • uninucleate
    • visceral smooth muscle - large sheets in the walls of hollow organs
    • multiunit smooth muscle - small discrete groups of cells
    • dense bodies
    • - similar to Z lines
    • - allow attachment of actin & myosin
  46. Physiology of smooth muscle
    • peristalsis - contracts in slow, rhythmic waves
    • autorhythmic - so don't have to think about moving food through GI tract
    • responds to stretching - eg eating large meal
    • responds to stimulation from the autonomic nervous system
    • - sympathetic - decreases contraction - eg don't want to have to go to bathroom during flight response
    • - parasympathetic - increases contraction - to move food through GI tract
  47. Borborgymus
    gurgling noise in stomach
  48. Multiunit smooth muscle
    • tiny groups of cells - 3/4/5 cells
    • small & delicate
    • walls of blood vessels & bronchii
    • pupil of the eye - when lie, autonomic NS causes this to change
    • arrector pili - hackles up
    • not autorhythmic - not constantly going
    • under autonomic control
    • - not being chased by tigers, just Dr. K (stress due to finals)
    • - yoga, meditation can help

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