Microbio Exam 3

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Microbio Exam 3
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2011-12-18 11:38:40
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  1. Staphylococcus aureus: virulence factors

    Site of Infection on skin & Diseases Associated
    Protein A (ties up Ig) located on wall, fibronectin-binding protein on wall which promotes adhesion, biofilms (polysaccharides on wall), necrotic enzymes such as hyaluronidase (keeps connective tissue), lipase and protease; DNase (breaks down DNA), hemolysins (phospholipase) which are enzymes breakdown membrane and RBC, toxins such as enterotoxin (food toxemia), exfoliative toxin (cytotoxin of skin), alpha-toxin (aleucocidin) which punch holes in neutrophils, toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST1) especially for staph aureus which once in the blood causes vasculitis and clumping (IGG) antibody fraction of blood

    On skin and forms abscess, carbuncle, impetigo, sties, decubitus ulcer (bed sores), disofuruncles (boils), scalded skin syndrome (SSS)
  2. Staphylococcus in Intestine: Diseases caused
    Enterocolitis often occurs following intensive chemotherapy
  3. Staphylococcus on hands: Diseases caused
    Food poisoning due to heat-stable exotoxin released in high protein foods
  4. Staphylococcus in bloodstream: Diseases caused and Treatment
    • Osteomyelitis (in bone), cellulitis and endocarditis (in valves)
    • Treatment: Synthetic penicillin such as methicillin, vancomycin
  5. Staph in genitourinary tract: Diseases caused and Treatment
    • Toxic Shock Syndrome, associated primarily with highly absorbent tampons but various types of surgeries also important
    • Treatment: Fluid replacement, drainage of foci of infection, antimicrobial therapy
  6. Staph epidermidis: Site of Infection

    Diseases

    Treatment
    In nares and on skin, especially axillae, head, legs and arms

    Endocarditis, colonization of prostheses, bacteremia from IV catheters

    Removal of foreign body or prosthesis, drainage of infection site, antimicrobial therapy such as nafcillin, oxacillin and cephalothin
  7. Staph saprophyticus: Site of Infection

    Diseases

    Treatment
    Occasionally isolated from skin: but has predilection for urinary tract

    Major cause of acute, recurrent cystitis in young women (UTI)

    Antimicrobial therapy. Organism is susceptible to most common antimicrobials.
  8. Streptococcus pyogenes Site of Infection

    Virulence Factors

    Diseases
    In the throat and on skin.

    M-protein (Group A) which attaches onto mucus areas, hyaluronic capsule which is antiphagolytic and degrades complement component, protein G (ties up Ig), protein F (epithelial adhesion), hemolysins (S & O) which lyses leukocytes, platelets and erythrocytes, streptokinase which lyses bloodclots to spread throughout body, C5 peptidase which breaks down compliment and creates biofilm, erythrogenic toxins (cytotoxin/superantigens) and causes immunosuppression, and TSSTA (toxic shock syndrome toxin)

    May initiate autoimmune diseases (rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis) as well as scarlet fever and puerperal fever (endometriosis), necrotizing fascritis, pharyngitis, impetigo, erysipelas
  9. Streptococcus agalactiae: Site of Infection

    Diseases Caused
    Female Genital Tract

    Neonatal Sepsis and meningitis
  10. Enterococcus faecalis: Site of Infection

    Diseases Caused
    Colon

    Abdominal abscess, urinary tract infection, endocarditis
  11. Streptococcus bovis: Site of Infection

    Diseases Caused
    Colon

    Endocarditis, Colon Cancer
  12. Streptococcus anginosus (equi): Site of Infection

    Diseases Caused
    Throat, colon, female genital tract

    Pyogenic infections, phary including brain abscesses
  13. Viridans streptococci: Site of Infection

    Diseases Caused
    Mouth, throat, colon, female genital tract

    Dental caries (s. mutans), endocarditis, abscesses
  14. Streptococcus pneumoniae: Site of Infection

    Diseases Caused
    Throat

    Pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis
  15. E. coli Enterotoxigenic (ETEC): Symptoms

    Virulence Factors

    Transmission Site
    First of toxic variety, major causes of infant diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea, abdominal cramps, low-grade fever

    Heat Labile (LT) sensitive protein to heat stable (ST) enterotoxin lipid, LT resembles cholera toxin in chemistry and action, fimbrial adhesion called colonization factor (CFA)

    Ingestion of contaminated food (raw vegetables, fish, meat) or water. Colonizes proximal small intestine.
  16. E. coli Enteropathogenic (EPEC): Symptoms

    Virulance Factors

    Transmission Site
    First evolution of bacteria, infant diarrhea, fever, vomiting, dirrhea with large amounts of mucus, distinctive lesions in which microvilli are destroyed (fimbraie attaches to receptors)

    Cytotoxin similar to Shiga toxin

    Ingestion of contaminated food or water, Invades Proximal intestine
  17. E. coli Enteroinvasive (EIEC): Symptoms

    Virulence Factors

    Transmission Site
    Diarrhea in adults and infants, Resembles shigella in pathogenicity, causes epithelial call death, fever, severe abdominal cramps, gross dysentery with bloody stool and mucus

    Several outer membrane proteins, similar to shigella, involved in invasiveness, shiga-like toxin produced

    Ingestion of contaminated food or water, predilection for mucosa of the colon
  18. E. coli Enterohemorrhagic (EHEC): Symptoms

    Virulence Factors

    Site of Infection
    Present day strain, ID50=50, 0157:H7, no fever or fecal leukocytes which distinguishes it from dysentery due to shigella, a hemolytic uremic syndrome may also appear to be characterized by hemolytic anemia and renal failure, cattle may serve as reservoir, also causes stroke and seizures

    Potent toxins called Verotoxin or Shiga-like toxins that are related to Shiga toxin

    Ingestion of contaminated food or water. Person to person transmission as in nursing homes, during epidemic disease, in large intestine
  19. E. coli Enteroaggregative (EAEC): Symptoms

    Virulence Factors

    Site of Infection
    evolved strain, 0104:H4, has antibiotic resistance, new STEC (with Shiga toxin), found in sprouts in Germany, Infant diarrhea, traveler's diarrhea, persistent watery diarrhea with vomiting, dehydration and low-grade fever

    Plasmid mediated aggregative adherence (intimin) of rods with shortening microvilli, mononuclear infiltration and hemorrhage; decreased fluid absorption

    in small intestine, not very toxic
  20. Salmonella enterica: Symptoms

    Virulence Factors

    Site of Infection
    Diarrhea, enteric fever, typhoid fever, fever, malaise, headache, constipation, bradycardia, and myalgia, enlarged spleen and liver, rose spots usually on skin of chest or abdomen

    Type III secretion (sips), epithelial cell invasion (CDT), survival in macrophages (Oxy R), proteins propel from cell to cell, carcinogen causes cancer

    Ingested, link up to receptors in intestine, taken into cell by SIPS, causes systemic infection (septicemia)
  21. Shigella: Symptoms

    Virulence Factors

    Site of Infection
    necrosis of the mucous membrane, superficial ulceration, bleeding

    Type III secretion Ipa protein- changes actin fibers, intracellular spread, induction of macrophage apoptosis, shiga toxin, exotoxin inhibits sugar and amino acid absorption in small intestine

    Gastrointestinal tract, bloodstream invasion is quite rare, infected dose is 10 to the 3 organisms, highly communicable
  22. Vibrio cholerae: Symptoms

    Virulence Factors

    Site of Infection
    Diarrhea, dehydration, shock

    Attach to microvilli of the brush border of epithelial cells. There they multiply and liberate cholera toxin and perhaps mucinases and endotoxin. Activation of subunit A yields increased levels of intracellular cyclic AMP and results in prolonged hypersecretion of water and electrolytes. Absorption of sodium and chloride is inhibited.

    In the intestinal tract O group I cause classical cholera.
  23. Gram negative coccobacillary- Hemophilus influenzae (Hemophilus egypticus) type b incapsulating: Disease Caused

    Virulence Factors

    Site of Infection

    Treatment
    Meningitis in children under 4 years, otitis media in children

    Endotoxin (lipid A), capsule(polyribitol phosphate), IgA protease, Cytolethal toxin (CDT) (carcinogen), fimbraie and adhesion

    Inhalation of respiratory droplets from active cases or carriers

    Ampicillin, chloramphenic or ampicillin
  24. Gram negative coccobacillary- Hemophilus influenzae noncapsulated: Disease Caused

    Virulence Factors

    Site of Infection

    Treatment
    Otitis media in children, pneumonia in elderly

    Unknown

    Inhalation of respiratory droplets, mother to newborn

    Same as H. influenzae
  25. Gram negative coccobacillary- Hemophilus ducreyi: Disease Caused

    Virulence Factors

    Site of Infection
    Chancroid in men

    polymicrobial causes ulcers

    uncircumsized more susceptible, STD
  26. Gram negative coccobacillary- Bordetella pertussis and parapertussis: Disease Caused

    Virulence Factors

    Site of Infection

    Treatment
    Pertussis (whooping cough), catarrhal stage (cold) and paroxysmal stage (cough)

    Dermadecrotic, Filamentous hemagglutinin, pertussis toxin (cAMP exotoxin), adenylate cyclase (fluid in trachea), Tracheal cytotoxin (kills cilia in trachea)

    Erythromycin, tetracycline, chlorampheni killed vaccine part of DTP (used now DTaP)
  27. Gram negative coccobacillary- Brucella abortus (cattle), mentensis (goat) suis (swine): Disease Caused

    Virulence Factors

    Site of Infection

    Treatment
    Brucellosis (undulant fever/chronic), hyperhydrosis, swollen nodes (bubo), hepatitis, granuloma (infection in organs), can become chronic if antibiotics don't kick in fast enough

    Toxic LPS and capsule

    A zoonosis transmitted to humans by consumption of raw milk or its products, contact with products of conception, ingestion of meat from infected animals, aerosols, lesions

    Ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, mass testing, slaughter of infected cattle and vaccination of heifers
  28. Gram negative coccobacillary- Francisella tularensis: Disease Caused

    Virulence Factors

    Site of Infection

    Treatment
    Tularemia (rabbit fever), lawn mower fever

    Unknown, Lipid capsule, ulcerating papule at surface, necrotic buboes

    Direct contact with infected animals by handling or ingesting contaminated meat, bite of insect vector, inhalation of contaminated aerosols generated by infected animals, rabbits

    Streptomycin
  29. Gram positive coccobacillary- Anthrax(bacillus anthracis) encapsulated : Disease Caused

    Virulence Factors

    Site of Infection
    Cutaneous anthrax is most common, localized itching, a papular lesion forms and turns into black eschar in seven to ten days. Gastrointestinal anthrax causes nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fever, bloody diarrhea, bloody vomit and abdominal pain. Inhalation anthrax is the deadliest

    Protein capsule, 3 toxins PA, EF, LF that work together. edema factor and letha factor travel internally via endocytosis and PA punch holes in wall, anthrax toxin produced during sporulation

    skin and hides of infected animals, fomites
  30. Yersinia pestis (bubonic plague): Diseases caused

    Virulence factors

    Site of Infection
    Intense hemorrhagic inflammation develops in the enlarged lymph nodes, which may undergo necrosis and become fluctuant. Can reach bloodstream and become widely disseminated. Hemorrhagic and necrotic lesions may develop in all organs, meningitis and pneumonia

    Fra in capsule (antiphagocytic), V & W factors (exotoxins)- shut down TNF (tumono necrosis factor) which is communication in immune system, Coagulase, Pla protease (degrades C3), siderophores, Type III secretion that disrupts actin & proteins of phagocytosis and induce apoptosis in macrophage (Yop gene products), virulence plasmids (has capsule, other Pla, third has LCrV which induces IL 10 and binds TLR2 to downregulate immunity)

    reservoirs, vector
  31. Spirochetes Treponema pallidum: Disease caused

    Virulence Factor

    Transmission

    Treatment
    Syphilis: Primary stage: chancre. Goes into latency for a month or so. Secondary Stage: rash and mucous membrane. Goes into latency for 6 moths to 8 years. Tertiary stage: lesions called gummas. Gongenital: stillbirth, abortion, or secondary syphilis.

    Do not go deep into tissue, Hyaluronidase allows them to travel deep into the tissue, adhesions, and fibronectin.

    Sexual contact, accidental contact with lesions and congenital transfer

    Penicillin, tetracycline or erythromycin.
  32. Spirochetes Treponema pertenue: Disease caused

    Virulence Factor

    Transmission

    Treatment:
    Yaws: Primary and secondary skin lesions

    First of treponema that infect cell

    contact with eating and drinking utensils

    Penicillin, improve hygiene
  33. Spirochetes Treponema carateum: Disease caused

    Virulence Factor

    Transmission

    Treatment
    Pinta: Skin lesions, hyperpigmented

    In humans ages ago

    Contact with eating and drinking utensils

    Penicillin, improve hygiene
  34. Spirochetes Borrelia recurrentis, hermsii, turicatae, parkeri: Disease caused

    Haplotype

    Transmission

    Treatment
    Relapsing fever: Bloodstream infected- followed by invasion of kidney, liver, eye, brain. Episodes of fever caused by antigenic variation of borrelia

    HLA-DR4 more severe

    Horsefly, spider, reservoirs are field mice

    Tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, avoid tick-infested areas
  35. Spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi: Disease caused

    Transmission

    Treatment
    Lyme disease: Skin lesions in first stage, second and third stages: Arthritis, neurologic and cardiac symptoms, alzheimers, palsy, encephalitis

    Ixodid ticks

    Oral phenoxymethyl penicillin or tetracyline for first stage, Penicillin G, chloramphenicol, or ceftriaxone for second stage.
  36. Spirochetes Liptospira interrogans: Disease caused

    Transmission

    Treatment
    Infectious jaundice: Bloodstream invaded- followed by liver, kidney, lung and meninges

    Found in warm areas, Ingestion of water contaminated by urinating animals

    Penicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline
  37. Spirochetes Spirillum minor: Disease caused

    Transmission

    Treatment
    Rat-bite fever: Formation of ulcer at site of bite plus body rash

    Bite of infected animal such as cat

    Self-limiting, but penicillin treatment of complications occur
  38. Spirochetes Campylobacter jejuni: Disease caused

    Haplotypes

    Virulence Factor

    Transmission

    Treatment
    Diarrhea

    HLA-B27 more severe

    Produces enterotoxin similar to LT of E. coli, also possesses adhesion and cytotoxin

    Ingestion of contaminated food or water, unpasteurized milk

    Erythromycin used in prolonged illness
  39. Spirochetes Helicobacter pylori: Disease caused

    Virulence Factor

    Transmission

    Treatment
    Possible gastritis and stomach or duodenal ulcers; stomach cancer

    Urease neutralizes stomach acid; mucinase disrupts lining; CDT toxin necrotizes (fragments DNA)

    Human (parents)

    Bismuth subsalicylate with amoxicillin or tinidazole
  40. Anaerobes Clostridium botulinum: Disease caused

    Virulence Factor

    Transmission

    Treatment
    Prevents release of acetylcholine from nerve endings/botulism

    200 molecules to shut down lung, neurotoxin

    potatoes, spinach, beans
  41. Anaerobes Clostridium tetani: Disease caused

    Virulence Factor
    prevents release of inhibitory mediators of spinal cord motor neurons/tetanus (e.g. GABA), (Tetanospasmin)- both muscles contract (lockjaw)

    Neurotoxin
  42. Anaerobes Clostridium perfringens major: Disease caused

    Virulence Factor
    Phospholipase C/gas gengrene (myonecrosis), Necrotic enteritis/ enterotoxemia, increase permeability of intestine, and ADP-ribosylation

    Debribin- cut away tissue
  43. Anaerobes Clostridium difficile: Disease caused

    Virulence Factor
    antibiotic associated pseudomembranous Colitis- destroys tissue and lining in intestine, and brought on by inbalance in microflora

    Enterotoxin- altered membrane permeability, Toxin A

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