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  1. Personality
    the pattern of psychological and behavioral characteristics by which each person can be compared and contrasted with others
  2. psychodynamic approach
    Freud's view that personality is based on the interplay of unconscious mental processes
  3. id
    the unconscious portion of personality that contains basic impulses and urges
  4. libido
    the psychic energy contain in the id
  5. pleasure principle
    the id's operating principle, which guides people toward whatever feels good
  6. ego
    the part of the personality that mediates conflicts between and among the demands of the id, the superego, and the real world
  7. reality principle
    the operating principle of the ego that creates compromises between the id's demands and those of the real world
  8. superego
    the component of personality that tells people what they should and should not do
  9. defense mechanism
    psychological responses that help protect a person from anxiety and guilt. (Repression, rationalization, projection, reaction formation, sublimation, displacement, denial, compensation)
  10. psychosexual stages
    perids of personality development in which, according to Freud, conflicts focus on particular issues
  11. oral stage
    the first of Freud's psychosexual stages, in which the mouth is the center pleasure and conflict
  12. anal stage
    the second of Freud's psychosexual stages, usually occurring during the second year of life, in which the focus of pleasure and conflict shifts from the mouth to the anus
  13. phallic stage
    the thrird of Freud's psychosexual stages, in which the focus of pleasure and conflict shiftis to the genital area
  14. Oedipus complex
    a pattern described by Freud in which a boy has sexual desire for his mother and wants to eliminate his father's competitionfor her attention
  15. Electra complex
    a pattern described by Freud in which a young girl develops an attachmentto her father and competes with her mother for his attention
  16. latency period
    the fourth of Frued;s psychosexual stages, in which sexual impulses lie dormant
  17. genital stage
    the last of Freud;s psychosexual stages, which begins during adolescence, when sexual impulses appear at the conscious level
  18. trait approach
    a perspective in which personality is seen as a combination of charactersitics that people display over time and across situations
  19. big-five model
    five trait dimensions found in man factor-analytic studies of personality: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness
  20. social cognitive approach
    an approach in which personality is seen as the patterns of thinking and behavior that a person learns
  21. functional analysis
    analyzing behavior by studying what responses occur underwhat conditions of operant reward and punishment
  22. self-efficancy
    according to Bandura, learned expectations about the probability of success in given situations
  23. humanistic approach
    a view in which personality develops through an actualiaxing tendency that unfolds in accordance with each person's unique perceptions of the world
  24. actualizing tendency
    according to rogers, and innate inclination toward growth that motivates all people
  25. self-concept
    the way one thinks of oneslf
  26. conditions of worth
    according to Rodgers, the feelings an individual experiences when the person, instead of the person's behavior, is evaluated
  27. deficiency orientation
    according to Maslow, a preoccupation with perceived needs for things a person does not have
  28. growth orientation
    according to Maslow, a tendency to draw satisfaction from what is available in live, rather than to focus on what is missing
  29. objective personality tests
    tests containing direct, unambiguous items relating to the individual being assessed
  30. projective personality test
    tests made up of unstructured stimuli that can be perceived and responded to in many ways
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