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  1. Consciousness
    Awareness of external stimuli in one's own mental activity
  2. Conscious level
    The level at which mental activities that people are normally aware of occur.
  3. Nonconscious level
    A level of mental activity that is inaccessible to conscious awareness
  4. Preconscious level
    The level of mental activity that is not currently conscious but of which we can easily become conscious
  5. Unconscious level
    A level of mental activity that influences consciousness was not conscious
  6. State of consciousness
    The characteristics of consciousness at any particular moment
  7. Altered state of consciousness
    A condition in which changes in mental processes are extensive enough that a person or others notice significant differences in psychological and behavioral functioning
  8. Slow wave sleep
    Sleep stages three and four, which are accompanied by slow, deep breathing; a calm, regular heartbeat; and reduced blood pressure
  9. Rapid eye movement REM sleep
    A stage of sleep in which brain activity and other functions resemble the waking state but that is accompanied by rapid eye movements and virtual muscle paralysis
  10. Insomnia
    A sleep disorder in which a person feels tired during the day because of trouble falling asleep or staying asleep at night
  11. Narcolepsy
    A daytime sleep disorder in which a person switches abruptly from an active, often emotional waking state into several minutes of REM sleep
  12. Sleeping apnea
    A sleeping disorder in which people briefly but repeatedly stop breathing during the night
  13. Sudden infant death syndrome SIDS
    Disorder in which a sleeping baby stops beating and dies
  14. Nightmare
    Frightening dream that takes place during REM sleep
  15. Night terror
    Horrific dreams that causes rapid awakening from stages three or four sleep and intense fear for 30 minutes
  16. Sleep walking
    A phenomenal primarily occurring in non-REM sleep in which people walk while the sleep
  17. REM behavior disorder
    A sleep disorder in which a person does not lose muscle tone during REM sleep allowing the person to act out dreams
  18. Circadian rhythm
    A cycle, such as waking and sleeping, that repeats about once a day
  19. Jet lag
    A syndrome of fatigue, irritability, inattention, and sleeping problems caused by air travel across several time zones
  20. Dream
    Story like sequence of images, sensations, and perceptions occurring mainly during REM sleep
  21. Lucid dreaming
    Awareness that a dream is a dream while it is happening
  22. Hypnosis
    A phenomenon brought on by special induction techniques in characterized by varying degrees of responsiveness to suggestions for changes in experience and behavior
  23. State ferry
    A theory that hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness
  24. Role theory
    A theory that hypnotized people act in accordance with special social role that provides a socially acceptable reason to follow the hit no cysts suggestions
  25. Dissociation theory
    A theory Defining gnosis as a social agreed-upon opportunity to display ones ability to let mental functions become dissociated
  26. Psychoactive drug
    Substance that acts on the brain to create some psychological effect
  27. Psychopharmacology
    The study of psychoactive drugs and their effects
  28. Blood brain barrier
    A feature of blood vessels supplying the brain that allows only certain substances to leave the blood and indirect with brain tissue
  29. Agonists
    Drug that mimics the effects of Nero transmitter that normally binds to a neural receptor
  30. Antagonist
    Drugs that bind to a receptor and prevents the normal neurotransmitter from binding
  31. Substance abuse
    The self administration of psychoactive drug in ways that deviate from a culture's social norms
  32. Psychological dependence
    A condition in which a person uses a drug despite adverse effects, needs the drug for a sense of well-being, and becomes preoccupied with attaining it
  33. Physical dependence
    Development of a physical need for a psychoactive drug
  34. Withdrawal syndromes
    Symptoms associated with discontinuing the use of a habit-forming substance
  35. Tolerance
    The condition in which increasingly larger drug doses are needed to produce a given effect
  36. Depressant
    Psychoactive drug that inhibits the functioning of the central nervous system
  37. Stimulant
    Psychoactive drug that has the ability to increase behavioral mental activity
  38. Opiate
    Psychoactive drug, such as opium, morphine, or heroine, that produces sleep inducing in pain relieving effects
  39. Hallucinogenic
    • Psychoactive drug that alters consciousness by producing a temporary loss of contact with reality and changes in emotion, perception, and talkPersonality
    • the pattern of psychological and behavioral characteristics by which each person can be compared and contrasted with others
  40. psychodynamic approach
    Freud's view that personality is based on the interplay of unconscious mental processes
  41. id
    the unconscious portion of personality that contains basic impulses and urges
  42. libido
    the psychic energy contain in the id
  43. pleasure principle
    the id's operating principle, which guides people toward whatever feels good
  44. ego
    the part of the personality that mediates conflicts between and among the demands of the id, the superego, and the real world
  45. reality principle
    the operating principle of the ego that creates compromises between the id's demands and those of the real world
  46. superego
    the component of personality that tells people what they should and should not do
  47. defense mechanism
    psychological responses that help protect a person from anxiety and guilt. (Repression, rationalization, projection, reaction formation, sublimation, displacement, denial, compensation)
  48. psychosexual stages
    perids of personality development in which, according to Freud, conflicts focus on particular issues
  49. oral stage
    the first of Freud's psychosexual stages, in which the mouth is the center pleasure and conflict
  50. anal stage
    the second of Freud's psychosexual stages, usually occurring during the second year of life, in which the focus of pleasure and conflict shifts from the mouth to the anus
  51. phallic stage
    the thrird of Freud's psychosexual stages, in which the focus of pleasure and conflict shiftis to the genital area
  52. Oedipus complex
    a pattern described by Freud in which a boy has sexual desire for his mother and wants to eliminate his father's competitionfor her attention
  53. Electra complex
    a pattern described by Freud in which a young girl develops an attachmentto her father and competes with her mother for his attention
  54. latency period
    the fourth of Frued;s psychosexual stages, in which sexual impulses lie dormant
  55. genital stage
    the last of Freud;s psychosexual stages, which begins during adolescence, when sexual impulses appear at the conscious level
  56. trait approach
    a perspective in which personality is seen as a combination of charactersitics that people display over time and across situations
  57. big-five model
    five trait dimensions found in man factor-analytic studies of personality: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness
  58. social cognitive approach
    an approach in which personality is seen as the patterns of thinking and behavior that a person learns
  59. functional analysis
    analyzing behavior by studying what responses occur underwhat conditions of operant reward and punishment
  60. self-efficancy
    according to Bandura, learned expectations about the probability of success in given situations
  61. humanistic approach
    a view in which personality develops through an actualiaxing tendency that unfolds in accordance with each person's unique perceptions of the world
  62. actualizing tendency
    according to rogers, and innate inclination toward growth that motivates all people
  63. self-concept
    the way one thinks of oneslf
  64. conditions of worth
    according to Rodgers, the feelings an individual experiences when the person, instead of the person's behavior, is evaluated
  65. deficiency orientation
    according to Maslow, a preoccupation with perceived needs for things a person does not have
  66. growth orientation
    according to Maslow, a tendency to draw satisfaction from what is available in live, rather than to focus on what is missing
  67. objective personality tests
    tests containing direct, unambiguous items relating to the individual being assessed
  68. projective personality test
    • tests made up of unstructured stimuli that can be perceived and responded to in many waysEncoding
    • The Process of acquiring information and entering it into memory
  69. acoustic encoding
    the mental representation of information as a sequence of sounds
  70. visula encoding
    the mental representation of information as images
  71. semantic encoding
    the mental representation of an experience by its general meaning
  72. storage
    the process of maintaining information in memory over time
  73. retrieval
    the process of recalling information stored in momory
  74. episodic memory
    memory of an even that happened while won was present
  75. semantic memory
    A type of memory containing generalized knowledge of the world
  76. procedural memory
    a type of memory containing information about how to do things
  77. explicit memory
    the process in which people intentionally try to remember something
  78. implicit memory
    the unintentional influence of prior experiences
  79. levels-of-processing model
    A view stating how well something is remembered depends on the degree to which incoming information is mentally processed
  80. maintenance reherarsal
    repeating information over and over to keep it active in short-term memory
  81. elaborative rehearsal
    a memrization method that involves thinking about how new information relates to information already stored in long-term memory.
  82. elaborative rehearsal
    a memorization method that involves thinking about how new information relates to information already stored in long-term memory
  83. transfer-appropriate processing model
    a model of memory that suggests that a critical determinant of memory is how well the retrieval process match the original encoding process
  84. parallel distributed processing (PDP) models
    Memory models in which new experiences changed one's overall knowledge base.
  85. information-processing model
    a medel of memory in which information is seen as passing through sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
  86. sensory memory
    a type of memory that holds large amounts of incoming information very briefly, buy long enough for it to be processed further
  87. sensory registers
    memory systems that hold incoming information long enough for it to be processed further
  88. selective attention
    the focusing of mental resources on only part of the stimulus field
  89. short-term memory (STM)
    the maintenance component of working memory, which holds unrehearsed information for a limited time
  90. working memory
    the art of the memory system that allows us to mentally work with, or manipulate, information being held in short-term memory.
  91. immediate memory span
    the maximum number of item a person can recall perfectly after one presentation of the items
  92. chunks
    stimuli that are preceived as one unit or as a peaningful grouping of information
  93. Brown-Peterson procedure
    a method for determining how long information rematins in short-term memory
  94. long-term memory (LTM)
    a relatively long-lasting stage of memory whose capacity to store new information is believed to be unlimited
  95. primacy effect
    a characteristic of memory in which recall of the first two of three irems in a list is particularly good
  96. recency effect
    a characteristic of memory in which recall is particulaly food for the last few items in a list
  97. retrieval cues
    stimuli that aid the recall of recognition of information stored in memory
  98. encoding specificity principle
    a principle stating that the abiliy of a cue to aid retrieval depends on the degree to wch it taps into information that was encoded at the time of the original learning
  99. context-dependent memory
    memory that can be helped or hindered by similarities or differences between the context in which it is learned and the context in which it is recalled
  100. state-dependent memory
    memory that can be helped or hindered by similarities or differences between the context in which it is learned and the context in which it is recalled.
  101. state-dependent memory
    memory that is aided or impeded by a person's internal state
  102. spreading activation
    a principle that explains how information is retrieved in semantic newtwork theories of memory
  103. schemas
    mental representations of categories of objects, events, and people
  104. method of savings
    measuring forgetting by computing the difference between the number or repetitions needed to lean and, after a delay, relearn the same material
  105. decay
    the gradual disappearance of the mental representation of a stimulus
  106. interference
    the process through which either the storage or the retrieval of information is impaired by the presence of other information
  107. retroactive interference
    a cause of forgetting in which new information placed in memory inerteres with the abilit to recall information already in memory
  108. proactive interference
    a cause of forgetting in which information already in memory interferes with the ability to remember new information
  109. anterogrady amnesia
    a loss of memory for any even that occurs after a bgrain injury
  110. retrograde amnesia
    a loss of memory for events prior to a brain injury
  111. Motivation
    the influence that ccount for the initiation, direction, intensity, and persistence of behavior
  112. Motive
    A reason or purpose for behavior
  113. Instinct theory
    a view that explains human behavior as moticated by automatic, involuntary, and unlearned responses
  114. instincts
    innate, automatic dispositions toward responding in a particular way when congronted with a specific stimulus
  115. homeostasis
    the tendency for organisms to keep their physiological systems at a stable, steady level by constantly adjusting themselves in response to change
  116. drive reduction theory
    a theory of motivation stating that motivationarises from imbalances in homeostasis
  117. need
    a biological requirement for well-being that is created by an imbalance in homeostasis
  118. drive
    a psychological state of arousal created by an imbalance in homeostasis that prompts an organism to take action to restore the balance and reduce the drive
  119. primary drive
    drives that arise from basic biological needs
  120. secondary drives
    stimuli that acquire the moticational properties of primary drives through classical conditioning or other learning mechanisms
  121. arousal
    a general level of activation that is reflected in several physiological systems
  122. arousal theories
    theories of motication stating that people are motivated to behave in ways that maintain what is, for them, an optimal level of arousal
  123. incentive theory
    a theory of motivation stating that behavior is directed toward attaining desirable stimuli and avoiding unwanted stimuli
  124. hunger
    the general state of wanting to eat
  125. satiety
    the condition of no longer wanting to eat
  126. obesity
    a condition in which a person in severely overweight, as measured by a body-massindex greater than 30
  127. anorexia nervosa
    an eating disorder characterized by self-starvation and dragmatic weight loss
  128. bulimia nervosa
    an eating disorder that involves eating massive amounts of food and then eliminating the food by self-induced vomiting or the use of strong laxatives
  129. sexual response cycle
    the pattern of physiological arousal during and after sexual activity
  130. sex hormones
    chemicals in the blood of males and femmales that have both organizational and activational effects on sexual behavior
  131. estrogens
    feminine sex horomones that circulate in the bloodstream of both men and women; relatively more strogens circulate in women
  132. progestins
    feminine sex hormones that circulate in the bloodstream of both men and women; relatively more progestines circulate in women
  133. androgens
    masculine sex horomones that circulate in the bloodstream in both sexes; relatiely more androgens circulate in men than women
  134. heterosexual
    referring to sexual motivation that is focused on members of the opposite sex
  135. homosexual
    referring to sexual motivation that is focused on members of one's own sex
  136. bisexual
    referring to sexual motivation that is focused on members of both sexes
  137. sexual dysfunction
    problems with sex that involve sexual motivation, arousal, or orgasmic response
  138. need achievement
    a motive reflected in the degree to which a person establishes specific goals, and esperiences feelings of satisfaction by doing so
  139. subjective well-being
    a combination of a cognitive judgement of satisfaction with life, the frequent experiencing of positive moods and emotions, and the relatively ingrequent experiencing of unpleasant moods and emotions
  140. emotion
    a transitory positive or negative experience that is felt as happening to the self, is generated in part by cognitive appraisal of a situation, and is accompanied by both learned and reflexive physical response
  141. sympathetic nervous system
    the subsystem of the autonomic nervous system that usually prepares the organism for vigorous activity
  142. parasympathetic nervous system
    the subststem of the autonomic nervous system that typically influences activity related to the protection, nourishment, and growth of the body
  143. fight-or-flight syndrome
    the phtysical reactions initiated by the sympathetic nervous system that prepare the body to fight or to run from a threatening situation
  144. attribution
    the process of explaining the causes of an event
  145. excitation transfer
    a process in which arousal from one experience carries over to affect emotion in an independent situation
  146. Cognitive Abilities
    the capacity to reason, remember, understand, solve problems, and make decisions
  147. intelligence
    those attributes that center around skill at information processing, and problem solving, and adapting to new or changing situations
  148. Stanford Binet
    A test for determining a person's intellgence quotient, or IQ
  149. IQ test
    a test designed to measure intelligence on an objectives, standardized scale
  150. Intelligence quotient
    an index of intelligence that reflects the degree to which a person's score on an intelligence test deviates from the average score of others in the same age group
  151. aptitude test
    a test designed to measure a person's capacity to learn certain things or perform certain tasks
  152. achievement test
    a measure of what a person has accomplished or learned in a particular area
  153. test
    a systematic procedure for observing behavior in a standard situation and describing it with the help pf a numerical scale or a category system
  154. norm
    a description of the frequency at which particular scores occur, allowing scores to be compared statistically
  155. reliability
    the degree to which a test can be repeated with the same results
  156. validity
    the degree to which test scores are interpreted correctly and used appropriately
  157. psychometric approach
    a way of studying intelligence that emphasizes analysis of the product of intelligence, especially scores on intelligence tests
  158. g
    a general intelligence factor that Charles Spearman postulated as accounting for positive correlations between people's scores on all sons of cognitive ability tests
  159. s
    a group of special abilities that charles Spearman saw as accompaanying gernal intellignece (g)
  160. fluid intelligence
    the basic power of reasoning and problem solving
  161. crystallized intelligence
    the specific knowledge gained as a result of applying fluid intelligence
  162. information-processing approach
    an approach to the study of intelligence that focuses on mental operations, such as attention and memory, that underlie intelligent behavior
  163. triarchic theory of intelligence
    Robert Sternberg's theory that describes intelligence as having analytic, creative, and practical dimensions
  164. multiple intelligences
    eight semiindependent kinds of intelligence postulated by Howard Gardner
  165. creativity
    the capacity to produce new, high-quality ideas or products
  166. divergent thinking
    the ability to think along many alternatives paths to generate many different solutions to a problems
  167. convergent thinking
    the ability to apply logic and knowledge to narrow down the number of possible solutions to a problem or perform some other complex cognitive task
  168. metacognition
    the knowledge of what strategies to apply, when to apply them, and how to use them in new situations
  169. learning
    the modification through experience of pre-existing behavior and understanding
  170. habituation
    the process of adapting to stimuli that do not change
  171. classical conditioning
    a procedure in which a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a stimulus that elicits a reflex or other response until until the neutral stimulu alone comes to elicit a similar response
  172. unconditioned stimulus
    a stimulus that elicits a response without conditioning
  173. conditioned stimulus
    the originally neutral stimulus that, through pairing with the unconditioned stimulus, comes to elicit a conditioned response
  174. unconditioned response
    the automatic or unlearned reaction to a stimulus
  175. conditioned response
    the response that the conditioned stimulus elicits
  176. extinction
    the gradual disappearance of a conditioned response when a conditioned stimulus no longer predicts the appearance of an unconditioned stimulus
  177. reconditioning
    the quick relearning of a conditioned response following extintion
  178. spontaneous recovery
    the reappearance of the conditioned response after extinction and without further pairings of the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
  179. stimulus generalization
    a phenomenon in which a conditioned response is elicited by stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus
  180. stimulus discrimination
    a process through which individuals learn to differentiate among similar stimuli and respond appropriately to each one
  181. second-order conditioning
    a phenomenon in which a conditioned stimulus acts like an unconditioned stimulus, creating conditioned stimuli out of events associated with it
  182. law of effect
    a law stating that if a response made in the presence of a particular stimulus is followed by staifaction, that response is more likely the next time the stimulus is encountered
  183. instrumental conditioning
    a process through which an organism learns to respond to the environment in a way that produces positive consequences and avoids negative ones
  184. operant conditioning
    a process through which an organism learns to respond to the environment in a way that produces positive consequences and avoids negative ones
  185. operant
    a response that has some effect on the world
  186. reinforcer
    a stimulus even that increases the probability that the response that immediately preceded it will occur again
  187. positive reinforcers
    stimuli that strenghen a response if they follow that response
  188. negative reinforcer
    the removal of unpleasant stimuli, such as pain
  189. escape conditioning
    a type of learning in which an organism learns to make a particular response in order to terminate an aversive stimulus
  190. avoidance conditioning
    a type of learning in which an organism responds to a signal in a way that prevents exposure to an aversive stimulus
  191. discriminative stimuli
    stimuli that signal whether reinforcement is available if a certain response is made
  192. shaping
    the process of reinforcing responses that come successively closer to the desired response
  193. primary reinforcers
    reinforcers that meet an organsim's basic needs, such as food and water
  194. secondary reinforcer
    a reward that people or animals learn to like
  195. continuous reinforcement schedule
    a pattern in which a reinforcer is delivered every time a particular response occurs
  196. partial reinforcement schedule
    a pattern in which a reinforcer is administered only some of the time after after a particular response occurs
  197. fixed-ratio schedule
    a partila reinforcement schdule that provides reinforcement follwing a fixed number of responses
  198. variable-ratio schedule
    a partial reinforcement scheduleb that provides reinforcement for the first response that occurs after some fixed time has passed since the last reward
  199. fixed-interval schedule
    a partial reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement for the first response that occurs after some fixed time has passed since the last reward
  200. variable-interval
    a partial reinforcement schdule that provides reinforcement for the first response after varying periods of time
  201. extinction
    the gradual disappearance of operant behavior due to elimination of rewarding for that behavior
  202. partial reinforcement extintion effect
    a phenomenon in which behaviors learned under a partial reinforcement schdule are more difficult to extinguish than behaviors learned on a continuous reinforcement schedule
  203. punishment
    presentation of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a pleasant stimulus
  204. learned helplessness
    learning that responses do not affect consequences, resulting in failure to try to exert control over the environment
  205. latent learning
    learning that is not demonstrated at the time it occurs
  206. cognitive map
    a mental representation of the environment
  207. insight
    a sudden understanding about what is required to solbe a problem
  208. observational learning
    learning how to perform new behaviors by watching others
  209. vicarious conditioning
    • learning conditioned responses by watching what happens to otherscritical thinking
    • the process of assessing claims and making judgments on the basis of well-supported evidence
  210. hypothesis
    in scientific research, a prediction stated as a specific, testable propsition about a phenomenon
  211. operational definition
    a statement that defines the exact operations or methods used in research
  212. variable
    a factor or characteristic that is manipulated or measured in research
  213. data
    numbers that represent research findings and provide the basis for research conclusions
  214. threory
    an integrated set of propositions that can be used to account for, predict, and even suggest ways of controlling certain phenomena
  215. naturalistic observation
    the process of watching without interfering as a phenomenon occurs in the natural enviroment
  216. case study
    a research method involving the intensive examination of some phenomenon in a particular individual, group, or situation
  217. survey
    a research method that involves giving people questionnaires or special interviews designed to obtain descriptions of their attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and intentions
  218. correlation study
    a research method that examines relationships between variables in order to analyze trends in data, to test predictions, to evaluate theoriesm and to suggest new hypotheses
  219. experiment
    a situation in which the researcher manipulates one variable and then observes the effect of that manipulation on another variable, while holding all other variables constant
  220. experimental group
    in an experiment, the group that revieces the experimental treatment
  221. control group
    in an experiment, the group that receives no treatment or provides some other baseline against which to compare the performance or response of the experimental group
  222. independent variable
    the variable manipulated by the researcher in an experiemtn
  223. dependent variable
    in a nexperiment, the factor affected by the independent variable
  224. confounding variable
    in an experiment, any factor that affects the dependent variable, along with or instead of the independent variable
  225. random variable
    in an experiment, a confounding variable in which uncontrolable factors affect the dependent variable, along with or instead of the independent variable
  226. random assignment
    the procedure by which random variables are evenly distributed in a nesperiment by putting participants into various groups through a random process
  227. placebo
    a physical or psychological treatment that contains no active ingredients but produces an effect because the person recieving it blieves it will
  228. experimental bias
    a congoudning variable tha occurs when an experimenter unintentionally encourages participants to respond in a way that supports the hypothesis
  229. double-blind design
    a research design in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know who is in the experimental group and who is in the control group
  230. sampling
    the process of selecting participants who are members of the population that the researcher wishes to study
  231. representative sample
    a group of research participants whose characteristics farily reflect the characteristics of the population from which they were selected
  232. random sample
    a group of research participants selected from a population whose members all had an equal chance of being chosen
  233. biased sample
    a group of research participants selected from a population each of whose members did not have an equal chance of being chosen
  234. behavioral genetics
    the study of how genes and enviroments affect behavior
  235. descriptibe statistics
    numbers that describe and summarize a set of reseach data
  236. inferential statistics
    a set of mathematical procedures that help researchers infer what their data might mean
  237. mode
    a measure of central tendency that is the value or score that occurs most frequently in a data set
  238. median
    a measure of cental tendency that is the halfway point in a set of data
  239. mean
    a measure of cental tendency that is the arithmetic average of the scores in a set of data
  240. range
    a measure of variablity that is the difference between the highest and the lowest values in a data set
  241. standard deviation
    a measure of variability that is the average difference between each score and the mean of the data set
  242. correlation
    in research, the degree to which one variable is related to another
  243. correlation coefficient
    a statistic, r, that summarizes the strength and direction of a relationship between two variables
  244. statistically significant
    • a term used to describe research results when the outcome of a statistical test indicates that the probabilty of those results occuring by chance is smallpsychology
    • the science of behavior and mental processes
  245. biological psychologist
    psychologists who analyze the biological facots influencing behavior and mental process
  246. developmental psychologists
    psychologists who seek to understand, describe, and explore how behavior and mental processes change over the course of a lifetime
  247. cognitive psychologists
    psychologists who study the mental processes underlying judgment, decision making, problem solving, imagining, and other aspects of human thought or cognition
  248. engineering psychology
    a filed in which psychs study human factors in the use of equiptment and help designers create better versions of that equipment
  249. personality psychologists
    psychologists who study the characteristics that make individuals similar to, or different from, on another
  250. clincal and counceling psychologists
    Psychologists who seek to assess, understand, and change abnormal behavior
  251. community psychologists
    psychs who work to obtaion psychological services for people in need of help and to prevent psychological disorders by working for changes in social systems
  252. health psychologists
    psychologists who study the effects of behavior and mental processes on health and illness, and vice versa
  253. educational psychologist
    psychs who study methods by which instructiors teach and students learn and who apply their results to improving such methods
  254. school psychologists
    psychologists who test IQ, diagnose students's acedemic problems, and set up programs to improve students' achievement
  255. quantitative psychologists
    psychs who develop and use statistical tools to analyze research data
  256. social psychologist
    psychs who study how people influence one another's behavior and mental processes, indicidually and in groups
  257. industrial/ organizational pyschologists
    psychs who study ways to improve efficiency, productivity, and satisfaction among workers and the organization that emply them
  258. sport psychologists
    psychs who explore the relationships between athletic performance and such psychological variables as motivation and emotion
  259. forensic psychologists
    psychs who assist in jury selection, evaluate defendants metal competence to stand trial, and deal with other issues involving psychology and the law
  260. enviromental psychologists
    Psychs who study the effects of the physical enviromental on behavior and mental processes
  261. Structuralism
    to studyb conscious experience and its structure
  262. Gestalt Psychology
    to describe organization of mental processes: "the whole is greater than the sum of its parts"
  263. Psychoanalysis
    to explain personality and behavior; to develop techniques for treating mental disorders
  264. Functionalism
    to study how the mind works in allowing an organism to adapt to the environment
  265. behaviorism
    to study only observable behavior and explain behavior via learning principles
  266. biological approach
    an approach in which behavior and ehacior disorders are seen as the result of physical processes, especially those relating to the brain and to hormones and other chemicals
  267. evolutionary approach
    an approach to psychology that emphasizes the inherited, adaptive aspects of behacior and mental processes
  268. psychodynamic approach
    a view developed by Freud that emphasizes the interplay of unconscious mental processes in determining human thought, feeling, and behavior
  269. behavioral approach
    approach to psychology emphasizing that human behavior is determined mainly by what a person has learned, expecially from rewards and punishment
  270. cognitive approach
    a way of looking at human behavior that emphasizes research on how the brain takes in information, creates perceptions, froms and retrieves memories, processes infromation, and generates integrated patterns of action
  271. humanistic approach
    approach to psychology that views behavior as controlled by the decisions that people make about their lives based on their perceptions of th world
  272. culture
    the accumulations of values, rules of behavior, forms of expression, religious belief, occumational choices, and the like for a group of people who share a common language and environment
  273. cognitive psychology
    the study of the mental processes by which information from the enviroment is modified, made meaningful, stored, retrieved, used, and manipulated to others
  274. information-processing system
    mechanisms for receiving information, representing it with symbols, and manipulating it.
  275. thinking
    the manipulation of mental representations
  276. reaction time
    the time between the presentation of a stimulus and an overt response to it.
  277. evoked brain potential
    a small, temporary change in EEG voltage that is evoked by some stimulus
  278. concept
    a category of objects, events, or ideas that have common properties
  279. formal concept
    a concept that can be clearly defined by a set of rules or properties
  280. natural concept
    a concept that has no fixed set of defining features but has a set of characteristics features
  281. prototype
    a member of a natural concept that possesses all or most of its characterisitic features
  282. proposition
    a mental representation of the relationship between concepts
  283. schema
    a generalization about categories of objects, places, events, and people
  284. script
    a mental representation of familiar sequences of activity
  285. mental model
    a cluster of propsitions representing our understanding of objects and processes that guides our interaction with those things
  286. images
    a mental representation of visual information
  287. cognitive map
    a mental representation of familiar parts of the envirmonment
  288. reasoning
    the process by which peoploe generate and evaluate arguments and reach conclusions about them
  289. formal reasoning
    the process of folloing a set of rigorous procedures for reaching valid conclusions
  290. algorithm
    a systematic procddure that cannot fail to prduce a correct solution to a problem, if a solution exists
  291. rules of logic
    sets of statements that provide a formula for drawing valid conclisions
  292. syllogism
    an argument made up of two propositions, called premises, and a conclision based on those premises, and a conclusion based on those premises.
  293. confirmation bias
    the tendency to pay more attention to evidence in support of one's hypothesis
  294. informal reasoning
    the process of evaluation a conclusion, theory , or course or action on the basis of the believability of evidence.
  295. heuristics
    time-saving mental short-cuts used in reasoing
  296. anchoring heuristic
    a mental shortfut that involves basing judgements on existing information
  297. representativeness heuristic
    a mental shortcut that involves judging whether something belongs in a given class on the basis of its similarity to the members of that class
  298. availability heuristic
    a mental shortcut through which judgements are based on information that is most easily brought to mind
  299. mental set
    the tendency for old patterns of problem solving to persist, even when they might not always be the mostefficient alternative.
  300. functional fixedness
    a tendency to think about familiar objects in familiar ways that may prevent using them in other ways
  301. artificial intelligence (AI)
    the field that studies how to program computers to imitate the products of human perception, understanding, and thought
  302. utility
    a subjective measure of value
  303. expected value
    the total benefit to be expected if a decision were to be repeated several times
  304. language
    symbols and a set of rules for combining them that provides a vehicle for communication
  305. grammar
    a set of rules for combinging the words used in a given language
  306. phoneme
    the smallest unit of sound that affects the meaning of speech
  307. morpheme
    the smallest unit of language that has meaning
  308. word
    unit of language composed of one or more morphemes
  309. syntax
    the set of rules that govern the formation of phrases and sentences in a language
  310. semantics
    rules governing the meaning of words and sentences
  311. surface structure
    the order in which words are arranged in sentences
  312. deep structure
    an abstract representation of the underlying meaning of a given sentence
  313. babblings
    the first sounds infants make that resemble speech
  314. one-word stage
    a stage of language developement during which children tend to use one word at a time

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