Card Set Information
What causes scapular winging?
Weak serratus anterior
Where can shoulder contusions occur?
biceps - blocker's/tacklers
What is the MOI of a humerus fracture?
rotary force on a fixed arm
Where do humerus fractures occur?
What are the complications of a humeral fracture?
radial nerve and groove
volkman's ischemic contracture
What are the signs and symptoms of a humeral fracture?
What are the MOIs for a clavicle fracture?
What are the signs and symptoms of a clavicle fracture?
decreased ROM (except IR & ER)
What are the signs and symptoms of a biceps tendon rupture?
What are the predisposing factors for a rotator cuff tear?
repetitive throwing (eccentric mvmnt)
What are the signs and symptoms of a rotator cuff tear?
pain on G or L tuberosity
painful overhead motions
AROM/PROM pain & weakness
Atrophy if chronic
What are the MOIs of a SC joint sprain?
contact to lateral shoulder
What is sprained in a SC joint sprain?
What are the signs and symptoms of a SC joint sprain?
pain w ABD, FLEX, HABD, HADD
pain under SC joint with HADD
What is the MOI for a SC joint dislocation?
What should be ruled out in a young athlete with a SC joint dislocation?
What are the MOIs for an AC joint sprain?
fall on elbow
superior force to clavicle with a fixed scap
articular disc pathology
What are the characteristics of a Grade 1 AC sprain?
called a shoulder pointer
What are the characteristics of a Grade 2 AC sprain?
partial tear AC and CC
slight step deformity
What are the characteristics of a Grade 3 AC sprain?
complete tear of AC and CC
piano key sign
What are the signs and symptoms of an AC joint sprain?
pain w AROM
pain w PROM above 90
decreased ROM acromion muscles
What are the characteristics of chronic AC joint pain?
rotator cuff symptoms
pain radiates into scapula and neck
no traumatic MOI
What are the potential causes of glenohumeral instability?
What are the static stabilizers of the GH joint?
What are the dynamic stabilizers of the GH joint?
what is the MOI for an anterior GH dislocation?
What are the signs and symptoms of an anterior GH dislocation?
humeral head inferior to coracoid process
shoulder loose w ER & ABD
What are the potential complications of an anterior GH joint dislocation?
Axillary nn impingement
Which special tests are positive in an anterior GH joint dislocation?
Load and Shift
What is a Hill-Sach's Lesion?
articular cartilage defect on post/lat humeral head
What is a Bankart Lesion?
an inferior GH ligament avulsion with labral involvement
What are the signs and symptoms of a Bankart Lesion?
Which special tests are positive with a Bankart Lesion?
What is a SLAP lesion?
superior labrum anteroposterior
Biceps long head involvement
What are the MOIs for a SLAP lesion?
What is a Type 1 SLAP lesion?
superior labral fraying/degeneration
What is a Type 2 SLAP lesion?
superior labrum and biceps anchor detached from superior glenoid tubercle
What is a Type 3 SLAP lesion?
Bucket handle tear (longitudinal)
Biceps tendon and labral rim intact
What is a Type 4 SLAP lesion?
Bucket handle tear (longitudinal)
tear extends to biceps tendons
What are the signs and symptoms of a SLAP lesion?
Deep pain b/w AC and coracoid process
locking, popping, grinding
pain while lying on shoulder
loss of strength
Which special tests are positive with a SLAP lesion?
What are the MOIs for a posterior GH instability?
FLEX & IR
acute or accumulated trauma
What are the signs and symptoms of posterior GH instability?
pain pushing heavy doors
loose with HADD
Which special tests are positive with Posterior GH instability?
load and shift
What increases inferior GH instability?
Rotator cuff weakness or tears
What are the signs and symptoms of inferior GH instability?
pain with traction - carrying heavy bags
Which special tests are positive with inferior GH instability?
What is shoulder impingement?
decreased space below coroacoacromial arch and coracoacromial ligament
In shoulder impingement, which structures can be compressed between the humeral head and acromion process?
What are the possible causes of shoulder impingement?
coracacromial arch or acromion variation
tight posterior capsule and ligaments
rotator cuff fatigue or decreased strength from repetitive overhead activities
What are the 3 stages of impingement?
1. intermittent pain w overhead activities
2. pain at rest or other activities, night pain, degeneration
3. constant pain, restricted ROM, RC tear
What are the signs and symptoms of impingement?
pain and weakness with IR, ER, FLEX and ABD
pain at acromion, greater tuberosity, bicipital groove
Which special tests are positive with impingement?
What factors contribute to tendinopathy?
imbalance between IR and ER
poor scapular control
What are the signs and symptoms of a rotator cuff tendinopathy?
deep subacromial pain after activity that progresses to during activity, then progresses to constant
Which rotator cuff muscle is most susceptible to tendinopathy?
supraspinatus because it is the closest to the acromion
Which special tests are positive with rotator cuff tendinopathy?
What are the causes of bicipetal tendinopathy?
Rotator cuff impingement, overuse, or dysfunction
sprained transverse humeral ligament causing tendon subluxation
Which special tests are positive with Bicipetal tendinopathy?
Where can bursitis occur in the shoulder?
What is the cause of bursitis in the shoulder?
What are the signs and symptoms of bursitis?
lateral pain (rebound)
constant dull ache
overhead activity pain
Which tests are positive with shoulder bursitis?
Where can the suprascapular nerve become compressed?
suprascapular notch (superior border, medial to base of coracoid process)
Where can the axillary nerve become compressed?
sup = teres minor and subscap
inf = teres major
med = long head triceps
lat = humerus surgical neck
Where can the long thoracic nerve become compressed?
Where can the accessory nerve become compressed?
neck posterior triangle
What are the causes of neurovascular injuries?
What are the signs and symptoms of a neurovascular injury?
altered mechanics (scapular winging)