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What was the reult of the Treaty of Verdun?
- Christian civilization extended
- strong, efficient government
What was the vassal's obilgation under a feudal contract?
The vassal pleged his loyalty to his lord.
What did medieval Christians believe was necessary for them to do in order to achieve salvation?
Recieve the sacraments
Which group began attacking Western Europe from the sea in the late 700's?
Why did feudalism develop in medieval Europe?
People needed protection after the attacks and invasions by the Bikings, Muslims, and Magyars.
What was chivalry?
- Code of honor for knights
What group was bound to the land for life under the Manor System?
What is meant by papal supremacy?
The authority over all secular rulers. (Including Kings)
What groups made up the new middle class that began to emerge in medieval society?
Merchants, traders, artisans