AP Euro Final Review

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AP Euro Final Review
2011-12-18 12:37:04
AP Euro

Semester 1
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  1. 3 major components of the Enlightenment.
    Methodsof natural science could and should be used to examine and understand all aspects of life.

    Thescientific method was capable of discovering the laws of human society as well as those of nature.

    • Progress—it was at least possible for human beings to
    • create better societies and better people.
  2. Who did/didn’t benefit from the Enlight?
    • Urban middle classes and aristocracy benefited;
    • poor and peasants did not benefit
  3. Enlightenment height?
  4. Fortenelle and his role?
  5. Most famous populizer—made science witty and entertaining for a broad nonscientific audience; he was also important in bringing science into conflict with
  6. How did the Scientific Revolution lead to the Enlight.?
  7. The Scientific Revolution’s rationalism and questioning
    allowed enlightened thinkers to come up with how and why people behave the way they do and came up with natural laws of human nature.
  8. Impact of tabula rasa and who pioneered it?
  9. John Locke—the human mind at birth was like a blank tablet—tabula rasa—on which the environment writes an individual’s understanding and beliefs; human development is determined by educational and social institutions.
  10. Role of philosophes—who were they and what did they do?
  11. They are one of the most influential groups of intellectuals; they proclaimed that they were bringing the light of knowledge to their ignorant fellow creatures in an Age of Enlightenment.
  12. Why was France the place where the Enlight. reached its height?
  13. French was the international language of the educated
    classes in the 18th century and the education of the rich and powerful laid in the hands of French tutors
  14. French absolutism and religious orthodoxy remained strong but not too strong after Louis XIV’s death.
  15. “the public” and “the people”
  16. Public—economic and social elites (educated class); people—common people.
  17. Jean le Rond d’Alembert’s view of the people and public
  18. He made a drastic distinction between “the truly enlightened public” and “the blind and noisy multitude.”
  19. Montesquieu’s role; what was The Spirit of Laws about?
  20. He was one of the greatest philosophes; his book was written in 1748 and was a comparative study of republics, monarchies, and despotisms—an inquiry in the emerging social classes.
  21. Rationale for the separation of powers.
    Montesquieu believed that forms of government were shaped by history, geography, and customs; he focused on the conditions that would promote liberty and prevent tyranny; political power was divided and shared by a variety of classes and legal estates
  22. Who was Voltaire and what was his role?
  23. Francois Marie Arouet; the most famous philosophe who wrote more than 70 witty volumes; he criticized government, religion, social norms, economics, etc.
  24. What did Voltaire believe about people’s ability to rule what did he believe about equality?
    He believed humans cannot govern themselves; he did not believe in social and economic equality; the only equality was that citizens depend on the laws which protect freedom of the weak against the ambitions of the strong.
  25. Denis Diderot; what did he write and how did the church respond?
    Helped write encyclopedia the rational dictionary of the sciences the arts and crafts; set out to teach people how to think critically and objectively about all things; the pope placed the encyclopedia on the church's forbidden works and pronounced excommunication on anyone who read or bought it
  26. Who wrote System of Nature? What was
    the message?
    Baron Paul d'Holbach- human beings are machines completely determined by outside forces
  27. David Hume.
    Important Scottish philosophe who argued the human mind is nothing but a bundle of impressions which originate from sense experience; our reason cannot tell us anything about questions that cannot be verified by sense experience; he undermined the enlightened faith in the power of reason
  28. Who influenced Jean-Jacques Rousseau? What did he believe about the relationship between people and society?
    Diderot and Voltaire- he believed rationalism and civilization were destroying rather than liberating the individual; the basic goodness of a person had to be protected from the cruel refinements of civilization
  29. General will.
    It reflects the common interest of all the people who have displaced the monarch as the holder of sovereign power; it represents the long term needs of the people
  30. Illegal book trade in France.
    France’s censorship caused many books to be printed abroad and smuggled back into the country; the illegal book trade featured a growth of the denunciations of high political figures
  31. Salons.
    It allowed women to hold social and intellectual gatherings to discuss all facets of life- science philosophy math etc.
  32. describe the rococo art
    soft pastels ornate interiors sentimental portraits starry eyed lovers cupid etc
  33. Madame Geoffrin’s
    she had 1 of the most famous salons; she is the unofficial godmother of the encyclopedia; she gave the encyclopedia financial aid and helped save them from collapse
  34. How did the Enlight. impact Absolutism? How did the philosophes regard their leaders?
    Philosophes believe that political change could best come from the ruler; it was necessary only to educate and enlighten the monarch who could then make laws and promote human happiness
  35. For and against Frederick II of Prussia being an enlightened monarch.
    Frederick II was an enlightened absolute monarch because he granted religious freedom improved the educational system abolished torture and denounced serfdom- all of which lended themselves to promoting human happiness; he was not enlightened because he still allowed serfdom gave more rights to the nobles and was opposed to the emancipation of Jews
  36. For and against Catherine the Great of Russia being an enlightened monarch.
    Catherine the great was enlightened monarch because she brought in western influences to improve Russian life; she helped Diderot with the encyclopedia restricted torture gave some religious tolerance and improved education; she was not enlightened because she gave many more rights nobles and gave nobles total control of serfs
  37. How did the Enlight. affect the lower classes?
    in some cases the enlightenment help the lower classes- some getting freedom and their own rights; others helped the lower classes less; Catherine the great tied serfs directly to the nobles, granting nobles full control over the serfs; enlightened figures were not focused on the well being of the lower classes- they were more concerned with the state government and upper class knowledge and betterment
  38. Conditions of Europe in the 1690’s.
    they were dismal; Finland lost 28 percent of its inhabitants between 1696 and 1697
  39. open-field system, common lands, crop rotation, and enclosure.
    • 1. open field system- divided the land to be cultivated by the peasants into several large fields which were cut into smaller strips; the fields were open and the strips were not enclosed into small plots
    • 2. common lands- open meadows for hay and natural pasture
    • 3. crop rotation- new patterns of organization allowed farmers to create rotations of crops to suit different kinds of soil
    • 4. enclosure- a revolution in the village life and organization was the necessary price of technical progress
  40. Agricultural Revolution
    technological progress could replace the idle fallow with crops and could increase the land under cultivation by 50 percent; the progressive elimination of the fallow in the 17th century and on is known as the agricultural revolution
  41. How did the enclosure movement affect poor landless farmers… proletarianization.
    common lands were important to the poor rural peasants and enclosure took away the rights to open lands; proletarianization- the transformation of large numbers of small peasant farmers into landless rural wage earners
  42. Factors that led to the increase in population?
    Decline in the mortality rate- bubonic plague it disappeared; preventative medicine such as inoculation against smallpox; improvements in water supply and sewerage which resulted in better public health and reducing disease like typhoid and typhus
  43. Cottage Industry.
    stage of rural industrial development with wage workers hand tools that necessarily preceded the emergence of large scale factory industry
  44. Putting-out system.
    merchant capitalists- loaned or put out raw materials to several cottage workers; rural workers- processed raw materials in their homes and returned finished product to the merchants; the putting out system was a kind of capitalism
  45. What made the putting-out system competitive?
    underemployed labor was in abundance and poor peasants landless labors worked for low wages; the cottage industry
  46. How did “spinsters” originate?
    when families needed more workers to spin wool and help with the cottage industry they hired widows and unmarried women to spin wool for their living
  47. Disadvantages to the putting-out system.
    Rural labor was cheap scattered and poorly organized therefore hard to control; it had definite disadvantages from an employers point of view
  48. Mercantilism
    system of economic regulations aimed at increasing power of the state; it aimed at creating a favorable balance of trade
  49. Navigation Acts.
    it helped to establish England and Scotland (Britain’s) world trade; it gave British merchants and ship owners a monopoly over trade to British colonies
  50. Two countries that dominated the Atlantic trade in the 1700s.
    England and France
  51. Goods new world offered; goods Europe offered.
    sugar and tobacco; woolen cloth axes firearms chains clocks coaches buttons saddles china furniture musical instruments scientific equipment, etc
  52. How many slaves were brought to the new world between 1701 and 1800?
    6,130,000; it needed manual labor to make sure it made enough exports to go to Europe
  53. How did slavery impact the Atlantic economy?
    slaves were a key element in western European economic expansion; they made a large scale production of valuable commodities for sale in Europe possible; Britain slave colonies accounted for more than 4 fifths of all commodities produced in America
  54. What did Parliament do in 1807?
    it abolished the British slave trade, but colonial slavery in America continued.
  55. Creoles, debt peonage, and mestizos.
    • 1. creoles- people of Spanish blood born in America
    • 2. debt peonage- a rancher would keep its spanicized Indians in perpetual debt bondage by periodically advancing food shelter and little money
    • 3. Mestizos- offspring of Spanish men and Indian women
  56. Adam Smith
    Scotland 1723-1790; he developed the idea of freedom of enterprise in foreign trade; he believed mercantilism favored the state; free competition best protected consumers from price gouging
  57. Acc.to Adam Smith, what are the 3 duties of gov’t?
    provide defense against foreign invasion; maintain civil order with court and police protection; sponsor certain indispensable works and institutions that could never adequately profit private investors
  58. What is the invisible hand?
    A laissez-faire economy- government deregulation; government is hands off
  59. Economic liberalism.
    it is a government that is hands off; it was unregulated capitalism
  60. What makes up an extended family? What makes up a nuclear family?
    extended family- 3 to 4 generations living in 1 home; nuclear family- couples establish their own household when they marry raise children apart from parents
  61. What economic opportunity existed for young adults in the 1700’s? Compare and contrast men to women.
    boys plowed, wove, apprenticed a craftsperson, wage labor; girls spun, tended cows, service for another family- cleaning, shopping ,cooking ,and caring for the baby
  62. Explain the significance of community controls and illegitimacy explosion. How did each impact European society?
    community controls- viewed an unwed mother with an illegitimate child to be a threat to the economic social and moral stability of the tight knit community; illegitimacy explosion- the number of illegitimate births soared between 1750 1850 in much of Europe
  63. wet-nursing, killing nurses, and infanticide
    wet nursing- a mother would hire someone to nurse their child; killing nurses- a nurse would let a child die quickly so she could take on another child in another fee; Infantcide- forcing or allowing you born babies to die when there are too many mouths to feed
  64. By the end of the 18th century approximately how many unwanted infants were abandoned annually? What is a foundling? What is a foundling home? What was the survival rate of a foundling?
    100,000; a baby that was abandoned by parents; a home that cared for abandoned babies; 5050 chance of survival
  65. According to the text…why were there such poor attitudes towards young children? What does this tell you about living conditions?
    because deaths among kids were so frequent people would not get too emotionally attached to their children because them surviving was very unlikely; there were very poor living conditions
  66. What does “spare the rod and spoil the child” mean? Who said it?
    Daniel Defoe; he meant that instead of loving children and getting emotionally attached parents should show discipline and control
  67. What did Rousseau suggest in regards to children? Explain how his ideas reflected enlightened principles.
    they needed to be shown love and tenderness and he proposed new teaching methods for children; he improved the moral view a children by refuting old ways of treating children
  68. According to the text…what fostered an increased literacy rate between 1500 and 1800?
    religious struggle between protestant and catholic reformations promoted popular literacy
  69. What country pioneered compulsory education? When did this begin?
  70. By 1800 what was the literacy rate in Scotland, England, and France?
    9 / 10 Scottish; 2 / 3 French; 1 / 2 English
  71. What impact did the writings of the enlightened philosophes have on the peasants and workers?
    they did not have much impact on peasants who couldn't afford or understand their work
  72. What did the peasants and workers read?
    chapbooks, humorous, and entertaining stories, fairy tales, how to books
  73. What was main food source of ordinary people during the 18th century?
    bread water green wine beer oatmeal
  74. What did the common people believe about the just price?
    prices should be fair and protect the producers and consumers and imposed by government decree if necessary
  75. Compare and contrast the diet of the rural and urban poor to that of the elite aristocrats
    poor ate vegetables like peas and beans and did not eat much meat or protein; rich people ate meat fish cheese sweets and nuts and did not eat vegetables or fruit because they were the food of the poor
  76. Describe scurvy and gout. Who got these diseases and why? What does this tell you about living conditions?
    scurvy is caused by a deficiencies of a and c vitamins, and it rotted gums swell limbs and caused weakness- poor got it; gout was also caused by a lack of a and c vitamins, the rich got it because of their overeating and under exercising
  77. Describe the understanding of medicine in the 18th century. What role did faith healers, apothecaries, physicians, surgeons, and midwives play?
    faith healers- used rituals to cure disease and dried out demons; apothecaries- sold herbs, drugs and medicine for all illnesses; physicians- believed in purging and bloodletting to cure disease; surgeons- amputated limbs and cauterized the stumps to stop disease; midwives- helped deliver babies and helped with other female issues
  78. How did Diderot describe the Hotel-Dieu in Paris? What was treatment of medical and mental patients like in the 1700’s?
    " richest and most terrifying of all French hospitals"; mental illnesses were treated by bleeding and violent patients were chained to walls; medically sanitation was poor and sick people were treated right in their beds which caused more health issues
  79. What was the 18th century’s greatest medical breakthrough? Who was involved?
    The cure of smallpox; lady Mary Wortley Montagu and Edward Jenner
  80. What did Edward Jenner accomplish and when did he accomplish this?
    the first vaccination of smallpox in 1796- he took matter of a cow pox and treated someone there by curing them of smallpox
  81. Explain how religion affected popular culture
    the parish which was the focal point of religious devotion; it organized processions
  82. List and describe the three aspects of Pietism
    it called for a warm and emotional religion that everyone could experience; it stressed the priesthood of all believers and reduced the gap between the clergy and the Lutheran laity; it believed that reborn Christians were to lead good moral lives and come from all social classes
  83. Who is John Wesley and why is he historically significant?
    John Wesley was the catalyst for popular religious revival in England; he organized a holy club for students like him who were avid and devoted to religion; they were called Methodists because they were so methodical in their devotions
  84. What did the Catholic Church struggle with
    during the 18th century?
    they struggled with new beliefs that were arising- such as processions, certain new holidays
  85. 1.Nicolaus Copernicus
    On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies; mathematician who did not believe in geocentricism; created heliocentrism; publically changed the status quo
  86. 2. Tycho Brahe
    Compiled data of his observations of the positions and movements of the stars and planets; built the first observatory
  87. 3. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
    Believed the universe was constructed on the basis of geometric figures; created the 3 laws of planetary motion; changed the status quo-there is no divine mover according to his planetary laws
  88. 4. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
    First to observe space using a telescope; discovered mountains and craters on the moon; 4 moons revolving around Jupiter; the phases of Venus; and sunspots; created materialism; Dialogue on the World System: Ptolmaic and Copernican
  89. 5. Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
    Invented calculus; worked on the law of universal gravitation; 3 laws of motion; World Machine; Principia
  90. 6. Galen (Medieval)
    Believed illness was caused by an imbalance of the 4 humors; greatly influenced the medieval world of anatomy, physiology, and disease
  91. 7. Paracelsus (1493-1541)
    Believed illness was caused by a chemical imbalance and could be treated using chemical remedies; “like cures like”
  92. 8. Andreas Versalius (1514-1564)
    He used research to understand the human body; found errors in Galen’s work; discovered that blood comes from the heart and not the liver; On the Fabric of the Human Body
  93. 9. William Harvey (1578-1657)
    Laid the foundation for modern physiology with his theory of the circulation of blood; On the Motion of the Heart and Blood; demonstrated that the heart was the beginning point of the circulation of blood; the same blood flows in veins and arteries; blood makes a complete circuit through the body
  94. 10. Robert Boyle (1627-1691)
    One of the first scientists to conduct a controlled experiment; worked on the properties of gas which led to Boyle’s Law
  95. 11. Margaret
    Cavendish (1623-1673)
    Important participant in scientific debates; wrote works on scientific matters
  96. 12. Maria Merian
    Important entomologist; great illustrator of her observations of insects and plants; she undertook expeditions to South America to draw and collect samples of plants and insects
  97. 13. Maria Winkelmann
    Most famous female astronomer of her time; assistant astronomer at the astronomical observatory in Berlin; denied a position at the Berlin Academy because she was a woman
  98. 14. Rene Decartes (1596-1650)
    Separation of mind and body (matter); deductive reasoning; “I think, therefore I am”; dualism; mathematical reasoning; Discourse on Method
  99. 15. Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
    Scientific method
  100. 16. Benedict de
    Spinoza (1632-1677)
    Did not believe in the separation of mind and body
  101. 17. Blaise Pascal
    Believed science and religion should remain as one
  102. Why is it suggested that the Scientific Revolution was not a revolution at all?
    It was not a revolution in that it was not characterized by an explosive change and rapid overthrow of traditional authority; it overturned centuries of authority, but in a gradual change
  103. Geocentricism
    The earth is the center of the universe; the earth is composed of material substances-earth, air, fire, and water; earth is constantly changing; the spheres surrounding earth were perfect and moved in circular orbits around the earth; the order of the spheres after earth—moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, the fixed stars, heaven (the Divine Mover)
  104. Heliocentric
    Sun-centered; planets revolve around the sun in the order—Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn; the moon revolves around the earth; the earth rotates on its axis
  105. Reactions to Copernicus’ ideas.
    It raised a question as to the validity of Aristotle and Ptomely; it created an uncertainty as to human’s place and importance in the universe
  106. Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion
    1. Orbits of planets around the sun are elliptical with the sun at one focus on the elliptical, not in the center

    2. The speed of a planet is greater when it is closer to the sun and slower when it is farther away

    3. Planets with larger orbits revolve at a slower average velocity than those with smaller orbits
  107. Materialism
    The universe is composed of similar substances
  108. Pioneers in Astronomy
    England, France, the Dutch Netherlands
  109. Newton’s Laws of Motion
    1. An object continues in a state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless deflected by a force

    2. The rate of change of motion of an object is proportional to the force acting on it

    3. To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
  110. Newton’s World Machine
    The world operates as a machine; there are natural and unchanging laws that govern the world and are made by God; God is a clockmaker—made everything, then created laws and rules by which everything is governed
  111. Boyle’s Law
    The volume of a gas varies with the pressure exerted on it; matter is composed of atoms
  112. Querelles des Femmes
    Arguments about women—women were portrayed as base, prone to vice, easily swayed, and “sexually insatiable;”
  113. How were skeletal structures used to oppress women?
    The larger pelvic area showed that women were best suited for childbearing; it also showed that the female skull was smaller than a male’s making the male mind bigger and better than the female mind.
  114. Cartesian Dualism
    The relationship between mind and body; using human reason (mind), humans can understand the material world because it is mechanism—a machine governed by its own physical laws
  115. Decartes—Father of…? Why?
    Realism; he separated mind and body; allowed scientists to view matter as dead/inert and something totally separate from themselves and could be investigated independently using reason
  116. Value of the Scientific Method
    Allows the question of “how” to be answered; takes something small and makes it broad and general; inductive reasoning
  117. How did scientific societies affect social and intellectual history?
    • Focused on theoretical work in mechanics and astronomy; developed for the betterment of the state and made useful
    • contributions to scientific knowledge
  118. How did “new science” impact religion?
    It established a difference between scientific investigations and religious beliefs; religious beliefs began to suffer asscience won out and this led to the secularization of Europe
  119. How was the Scientific Revolution truly a
    It represented a major turning point in the modern western civilization; the world overthrew the medieval view of the universe and came to a new conception—sun-centered; there was a separation of mind and matter—using reason helps us understand nature; it also changed the way Europeans viewed themselves