western civ.2 final

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  1. What is commerace?
    • Buying and selling of commodities on a large scale.
    • Trade.
  2. What is soverignty?
    Sumpremacy of political autority.
  3. What is an alliance?
    • A formal agreement or treaty between 2 or more nations to cooperate for specific purposes.
    • An association based on marriage between the members of 2 important & powerful families.
  4. What is an oligarchy?
    A small group of people who rule the state.
  5. What is exploitation?
    Appropriating unpaid labor (surplus value) that the worker created in the process of production or mining.
  6. What does alien mean?
  7. What does it mean to suppress?
    • To put an end to (rebellion) by force.
    • To crush.
    • To subdue.
  8. What does coup d'etat mean?
    Its a sudden overthrow of a government by a usually small group of people.
  9. What does autonomy mean?
    Self rule.
  10. What does it mean to nationalize something?
    To convert from private to governmental ownership and control.
  11. What does contemporary mean?
    A person living or existing at the same time as another.
  12. What does it mean to have a monopoly?
    To have exclusive possession or control of the supply or trade in a commodity or service.
  13. What does idealogy mean?
    • The ideas and manner of thinking of a group, social class, individual.
    • A system of ideas and ideals, esp. one that forms the basis of economic or political policy.
  14. What is an embargo?
    An officaial ban on trade/commercial activity w/a particular country.
  15. What does it mean to annex something?
    Append or add as an extra subordinate part, esp. to a document.
  16. What does oppression mean?
    Prolonged cruel or unjust treatment or control, or the state of being subject to such treatment or control.
  17. What doe unilateral mean?
    Performed by affecting only one person, group, or country involved in a particular situation w/out the agreement of another or the others.
  18. What is a hegemony?
    Leadership or dominance, esp. by one country or social group.
  19. What does secular mean?
    Things w/no spiritual or religious basis.
  20. Why does Lenin say only the proletariat is in the position to overthrow the bougeise and control/maintain a non-exploitive state?
    • A Large number of people are being exploited.
    • Work in strategic industries.
    • They cooperate w/ each other in the workplace.
    • The formation of tade unions.
    • They share the same aspirations.
  21. What is the Marxian definition of a state, as described by Lenin?
    A special organzationof force or violence organized by the ruling class for the suppression of other classes.
  22. According to Lenin, is the state above classes?
    • The state does not exist w/out the social classes.
    • The state exists for the class with wealth.
  23. Whats the difference between formal and informal empires?
    • Formal empires = direct political and military control of other peoples.
    • Informal empires = a lack of political and military control. Informal empires are controlled through trade, banking, & capital export.
  24. In the 19th century which 2 European powers experienced a territorial decline in their empires?
    • Portugal
    • Spain
  25. In which (1) large geographical region Portugal and Spain lose their territorial pocessions?
    • Central America
    • South America
  26. What was the nature of the Portugal and Spain colonies, in Central and South America?
    • Small in number
    • Along the coast.
  27. In general what types of wars are being fought between 1850-1875?
    Colonial wars.
  28. In the 19th century from 1850-1875 where is Britians empire most dominent?
    Latin Amercia.
  29. Describe the characteristics of underdevelopment, using Latin America as your model, to tell the causes, consequences, benefited classes, how did they benefit, which were effected in a negative way, and how?
    • Military conquest.
    • Settlement and colonization/expropriation of resources by force.
    • Enslave/use locals as wage labor.
    • Wages earned are then sent back to colonial power (ex. Britain).
    • Any wages left over, the creole class spends on personal processions or symbols of wealth (ex. homes, car, jewelry).
    • The struggle for independence begins amongst locals form 1809-1824.
    • Britain takes control after 1824 in Latin America as an informal empire, their capital dominates society.
    • Slavery ends.
    • Capitalist agriculture begins AKA the "1 crop shop".
    • Political independence is gained and changes, the locals start managing the British capital.
    • Underdevelopment happens because locals have no control over production, the 1 crop economy is the result of agriculture, banking, and manufacturing don't develop in the local economy, untimely resulting in poverty.
  30. On the eve of WW1, the European conquest of Africa was in what stage?
    The process of invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers during the New Imperialism period, between 1881 andWW1 in 1914.
  31. What European countries did not have pocession in Africa on the eve of WW1?
    • Netherlands
    • Austria/Hungry
    • Poland
    • Sweden
    • Denmark
    • Norway
  32. What under-developed region was not directly affected by the rigorious territorial conquests of the 19th century?
    • Central America
    • South America
  33. Which economic theory replaced mercantilism, and when did it become such a dominent force?
    Laissez faire, in 1776.
  34. What year did Napolean conquer Spain, and what were the lonf and short term affects?
    • 1808. This provided independence movements in the short term, and political independence in the long term.
    • Britian fills the vacum left by Portugal and Spain.
  35. What were the 2 main sources of power driving the 1st industrial revolution?
    • Coal
    • Steam
  36. What were the 2 main sources of power driving the 2nd industrial revolution?
    • Electricity
    • Oil
  37. 14 events in chronological order
    • 1400-1500 rise of capitalist economy in England
    • 1689 Sencond Treaties of Government published.
    • 1775-1824 Bourgeois Revolution in France
    • 1787 Federalist Paper #10 published
    • 1789 French Revolution
    • 1770-1800 1st industrial revolution
    • 1815-1875 Industrial capitalist states fought wars against colonized peoples around the world.
    • 1815-1917 Liberalism, socialism, and nationalism throughout Europe; rise of Trade Union movements.
    • 1848 Publication of the Communist Manifesto
    • 1860-2010 2nd Industrial revolution
    • 1914 WW1
    • 1917 Bolshevik Revolution
    • 1939-45 WW2
    • 1917 State of Revolution published
  38. Describe the 2 main factors to the development of capitalism, that led to the new imperialism?
    • Concentration, an absolute increase in capital by individual corporations.
    • Centralization, large amounts of capital are held amongst fewer hands.
  39. What are the basic features or characteristics associated with the nw imperialism of the late 19th century?
    • Capital has reached the monopolization of society.
    • Merging banking and industrial capital. Companies form conglomerates in industries that they use to reuduce the cost of business.
    • Rise of multi-industry corporations.
    • Economic exploitation of foreign peoples using military force.
  40. Name 8 countries that were part of new imperialism?
    • USA
    • Britian
    • France
    • Germany
    • Japan
    • Russia
    • Italy
    • Belgium
  41. Descibe the main features of capitalism?
    • Socio-Economic system.
    • Commodity production is dominent form.
    • 2 basic social classses, a working and capitalist class.
    • Competition between private capital.
    • Profit maximization.
    • A money economy.
    • Worldwide system.
    • Constanly develop/improve production.

  42. What are the main imparitives of capitalism?
    • Competition
    • Profit maximization
    • Constanly revolutionizing the forces of production
  43. What are the consquences of new imperialism?
    • Territorial division is complete, by leading capitalist states.
    • The conquest of Africa was on the rise.
    • Militarism is on the rise, leading to WW 1&2.
    • Beginning of national liberation struggles in the under-developed countries.
    • Continuing struggle of the leading capitalist states for hegemony in the world.
  44. What do Marx and Engles see as the basic causes of economic crisis under capitalism?
    • Overdevelopment of forces related to production.
    • Poor working wages.
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western civ.2 final
western civ. 2 final
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