Anatomy Physiology Section 1

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Anatomy Physiology Section 1
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2011-12-18 15:36:54
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Semester 1
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  1. How is Homeostasis Maintained
    By Negative Feed back Mechanisms
  2. What kind of mechanism is Child Labor giving birth considered
    Labor pains are one of the few positive feedback mechainsm responses in the body that contines the response in the same direction of the stimuli
  3. Organelle
    Smallest part of a cell unit in the body
  4. Daily fluid intake equal to daily fluid output would be considered
    A body in Homeostatis
  5. Positive Feedback Response
    • Enhances the original stimulus by proceeding in the smae direction as stimulus
    • ex child labor pains Positive feedback responses usually control infrequent events that do not require contiuous adjustments
  6. Homeostatic Imbalance
    Most disesase states would be considered homestatic imbalance
  7. Summary of the positive feedback mechanism regulating formation of a platelet plug

    Postivie Feedback Loop
    • 1 Tear occurs in blood vessel wall -initiates the cycle
    • 2 Platelets adhere to site and release chemicals
    • 3 Released chemicals attract more platelets
    • 4 Platelet plug is formed - feedback cycle ends
  8. Superior ( cranial)
    • Toward the head or upper part of a structure
    • The head is superior to the abdomen
  9. Inferior (Caudal)
    • Away firm the head toward the lower oart of a structure or the body below
    • The navel is inferior to the chin
  10. Ventral (Anterior)
    • Toward or at the front of the body; in front of
    • The breastbone is anterior to the spine
  11. Dorsal (Posterior)
    Toward or at the back of the body, behind
  12. Medial
    • Toward ir at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
    • The heart is medial to the arm
  13. Lateral
    Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of

    The arms are lateral to the chest
  14. Intermediate
    Between a more medial and a more lateral structure
  15. Proximal
    Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunkThe elbow is proximal to the wrist
  16. Distal
    • Farther from the origin of a body or part of the point of attachemnt of a limb or the body trunk
    • The knee is distal to the thigh
  17. Superficial (External)
    • Toward or at the body surface
    • The skin is superficial t the skeletal muslces
  18. Deep (internal)
    Away from the body surface: more internal

    The lungs are deep to the skin
  19. Anatomical Position
    Body erect feet slightly apart, palms face forward, thumbs point away form body
  20. Directional Terms
    Allow us to explain where one body structure is in relation to another
  21. Axial
    Appenddicular
    Axial makes up the main axis of our body includes head neck and trunk

    Appendicular part consists of the appendages, or limbs, which are attached to the body's axis.
  22. Most frequently used body planes ...
    • Sagittal Plane
    • Median Plane(Midsagittal )
    • Parasgittal (off set from midline para=near)
    • Frontal(Coronal Plane)
    • Transverse or horizontal Plane( called a cross section)
    • Oblique Sections (cut diagonally)
  23. Dorsal Cavity
    • protects nervous system organs-
    • 2 subdivisions -crainal and spinal(vertebral) cavities
  24. Ventral Body Cavity
    Ventral houses internal organs collectively called the Viscera 2 subdivisions Thoracic and Abdominopelvic
  25. Thoracic Cavity
    surrounded by ribs subdivided into lateral pleural cavities each enveloping a lung and the medial mediastinum(contains the pericardial cavity)-which encoloses the heart
  26. Abdominopelivc Cavity
    seperated from thoracic by diaphragm, the abdomino contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver and other organs and the inferior oart , the pelvic cavity lies in boney pelvis contains urinary bladder, reprodductuve and rectum
  27. Most vulnerable organs
    are in the abdominopelvic organs
  28. Membranes in the Ventral Cavity
    walls of ventral cavity and outer surfaces of the organs it contains covered by thin double-layered membrane, the Serosa membrane -part of the membrane lining the cavity walls is called the parietal serosa
  29. Parietal serosa
    The part of the membrane lining the cavity walls and it folds in on itself to form visceral serosa-covering the organs in the cavity
  30. Serous Fluid
    thin layer of lubricating fluid that seperates the parietal and visceral serosa
  31. Order of serous membranes of heart
    • outer Parietal Pericardium
    • middle Pericardial space with the serous fluid
    • inner Visceral Pericardium closest to the heart
  32. Parietal Pericardium
    lines the pericardial cavity and folds back on itlself as the visceral pericardium, which covers the heart
  33. Visceral Pericardium
    Covers the heart
  34. Parietal pleurae
    line the walls of the thoracic cavity and the visceral pleurae
  35. Structural level of Organization
    chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organismal
  36. Mesenteries
    Double-layered extensions of the peritoneum that support most organs in the abdominal cavity

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