Public Administration

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shabazz704
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124373
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Public Administration
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2011-12-18 23:18:38
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FINAL EXAM
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STUDY GUIDE
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  1. A method of program evaluation that makes comparisons
    between similar programs in similar circumstances.
    Benchmarking
  2. An evaluation of efficiency that assigns
    monetary value to all benefits and costs of a program.
    Benefit-cost analysis
  3. 1. The idea that government agencies should be
    accountable to other government institutions, as well as to the public.
    Bureaucratic responsiveness
  4. Goals that shape how an agency will accomplish its
    primary mission.
    Contextual Goals
  5. The ability of an organization to meet its policy goals.
    Effectiveness
  6. Meeting the primary organizational goals at the lowest
    possible cost.
    Efficiency
  7. A form of responsiveness that emphasizes the ideal of
    meeting the individual needs of citizens.
    Flexibility
  8. An experimental design to measure the impact of a
    program by gathering information prior to and after the introduction of the
    program.
    Intervention analysis
  9. Complex, difficult to
    define problems with many causes that defy any single policy solution.
    Intractable Problems
  10. A method of evaluating organization-wide performance,
    often on managerial issues. Useful for comparing the performance of several
    organizations.
    Organizational report card
  11. Analysis to determine the
    value of effectiveness of a government program. The 4 types are evaluations of
    need, process, outcome, and efficiency.
    Program Evaluation
  12. A pejorative term used to describe what are perceived
    as unnecessary or inefficient rules and procedures.
    Red Tape-
  13. The amount by which overlays exceed revenue in a
    fiscal year.
    Deficit
  14. At the federal level, what the president and congress
    decide to spend through the 13 annual appropriations bill.
    Discretionary spending
  15. Programs in which the
    federal government is legally obligated to make payments of provide aid to any
    person who meets the legal criteria for eligibility. Examples include Social
    Security, Medicare, Medicaid, and food stamps.
    Entitlement programs-
  16. Money collected by the
    government as taxes, fees, charges, and other government activities such as
    transfers and grants.
    Revenue
  17. A type of budgeting that ensures spending falls
    substantially below revenue projections, which builds a surplus into the
    budget.
    Revenue budgeting
  18. Prices paid by citizens in
    exchange for some government good or service.
    User charges
  19. Prices paid by citizens to
    engage in activity for some government good or service
    User Fees
  20. The Process of staffing
    bureaucracy with political elites.
    Administration by the Aristocracy
  21. Policies that give hiring
    preferences to disadvantaged groups such as women and ethnic minorities.
    Affirmative Action
  22. Nonsalary job compensation that can include health care, pension schemes, vacation allotments, an promises of jobs security.
    Benefits Packages
  23. The process of assigning
    average job evaluation ratings to everyone regardless of the actual variation
    in job performance.
    Central Tendency Bias
  24. A written test designed to gauge
    job-related skills and aptitude for employment at a public agency.
    Civil Service Examination
  25. Law that prohibit public agencies from discriminating in their hiring
    practices on the basis of race, gender religion, age, disability, or national
    origin.
    Equal Opportunity Laws
  26. bias that occurs when a
    rater is overly influenced by a past positive event rather than evaluating the record relevant to the rating period.
    Halo Bias
  27. Bias that occurs when a
    rater is overly influenced by a past negative event rather than evaluation the
    record relevant to the rating period.
    Horn Bias
  28. Salary increases or bonuses based on job performance.
    Merit pay
  29. A personal system that uses evaluations of work to determine promotions and raises rather than basing rewards on political grounds.in a government agency will also usually protect workers’ rights in most personnel matters (hiring, firing, evaluations, promotions, and raises).
    Merit System
  30. An 1883 law that
    established a merit system for the federal government.
    Pendalton Act
  31. States that people in hierarchical organizations are promoted to their level of incompetence.
    Peter Principle
  32. A fixed term when new employees do not receive full civil service job protections
    Probationary Period
  33. The tendency of those doing a job evaluation to make subjective or uninformed judgments
    Rater bias
  34. Time in service. Pay raises in the public sector are often based on this.
    Seniority
  35. an approach to staffing bureaucracies that allows electoral winners to hire and fire government employees as they see fit. This means government employees get and retain jobs on the basis of partisan loyalty.
    Spoils System
  36. An act of congress that establishes or continues a federal program or agency, and sets forth the guidelines to which it must adhere.
    Authorization
  37. This result occurs
    when total receipts equal total outlays for a fiscal year.
    Balanced budget
  38. the authority provided by law to incur financial obligations that will result in outlays.
    This authority comes in several forms: appropriations, borrowing authority,
    contract authority, entitlement authority, and loan guarantee authority
    Budget authority
  39. a law designed to limit discretionary spending while ensuring that new entitlement
    programs or tax cuts do not increase deficits. It set annual limits on total discretionary
    spending and created Pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) rules for changes in entitlements
    and taxes.
    Budget Enforcement Act
  40. The annual framework that Congress uses to set targets for total spending, total
    revenues, and the deficit as well as locations within the spending target, for
    discretionary and mandatory spending. It does not become law
    and is not binding on the executive branch.
    Budget Resolution
  41. Used by state and local governments to finance expensive long-term projects.
    Capital Budget
  42. a procedure that applies budget resolution spending limits to individual congressional
    committees.
    Crosswalk
  43. The amount paid annually in interest and principal on outstanding government debt.
    Debt Service Payments
  44. Money owed by the federal government, divided into two types: debt held by the public, which is
    the cumulative amount of money the federal government has borrowed from the
    public and not repaid; and debt held by government accounts, which is the debt
    the Treasury owes to other accounts within the federal government. Most of it
    results from surpluses of Social Security and other trust funds, which are
    required by law to be invested in federal securities.
    Federal Debt
  45. Money owed by the federal government, divided into two types: debt held by the
    public, which is the cumulative amount of money the federal government has
    borrowed from the public and not repaid; and debt held by government accounts,
    which is the debt the Treasury owes to other accounts within the federal
    government. Most of it results from surpluses of Social Security and other
    trust funds, which are required by law to be invested in federal securities.
    Federal Debt
  46. The government's accounting period. The federal government's begins on October 1 and ends on
    September 30.
    Fiscal Year
  47. a type of veto that
    allows the executive to remove specific items, while still passing the remainder of the budget.
    Line-item Budget
  48. spending that is authorized by permanent law rather than annual appropriations.
    Mandatory Spending
  49. Used by state and local governments to budget for day-to-day operations.
    Operating Budget
  50. The amount of money the government actually spends in a given fiscal year.
    Outlays
  51. Refers to requirements that new mandatory spending proposals or tax reductions must be
    offset by cuts in other mandatory spending or by tax increases, to ensure that
    the deficit does not rise or the surplus does not fall. These requirements are
    no longer enforced.
    PAYGO
  52. a type of budgeting that allocates budgetary and human capital resources by comparing
    historical and expected future performance levels with the full cost of
    producing desired program outcomes.
    Performance Budgeting
  53. Public spending targeted at specific jurisdictions,
    used for constituency service.
    Pork-Barrel Spending
  54. Designed to help the federal government meet the
    expectations of the Government Performance and Results Act. Scores that agencies receive help link
    program performance with budget decisions, and agencies are held increasingly
    accountable for the successfulness of their specific programs.
    Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART)
  55. A budgeting technique that examines the purpose of
    government programs, rather than just their activities, including programs’ cost-effectiveness.
    Program Budgeting
  56. A budgeting technique that in its pure form sets agency
    budgets back to zero, forcing a thorough review of all spending each fiscal
    year.
    Zero-Based Budgeting
  57. The means by which a policy will be implemented
    Appropriate Course of action
  58. An understanding of the relationship between a public policy and the goal it is to achieve.
    Causal theory
  59. Implementation that relies on punishments to those who
    do not follow the law.
    Coercive methods
  60. Popular causal theories that expect individuals or groups
    to behave in ways to avoid punishments and to seek rewards.
    Economic theories
  61. A causal theory that expects individuals or groups to
    make better decisions if they have more information about the outcome of their
    choices.
    Information and Decision-Making Theory
  62. The goal of the policy, and
    the means to the goal, that are desired by the policymakers who pass a law.
    Legislative intent
  63. Implementation that relies on things such as information, benefits, or loans. It may also involve no government action at all.
    Noncoercive methods
  64. The actions taken by public
    organizations to ensure that policy decisions are put into effect.
    Policy implementation
  65. The set of individuals or groups at which a policy is
    directed.
    Target population
  66. A situation in which individuals or groups respond to a policy even without government action.
    Voluntary Compliance
  67. The delivery of public programs and services
    electronically, typically via the Internet.
    ATM Bureaucracy
  68. A term that describes the decreasing importance of
    geographical borders to political jurisdictions. This
    problems ranging from traffic congestion to water conservation management are
    addressed by cooperation and coordination among public agencies in different
    political jurisdictions.
    Disarticulated state
  69. Another term for ATM
    bureaucracy.
    E-Government
  70. A wide-ranging reexamination of what government is and what it is expected to do. This debate has been a central concern to public
    administration scholars since the 1970s.
    The Great Governance debate
  71. a Theory that seeks to explain how one actor
    (the principal) can get another actor (the agent) to act in the principal’s best interests even though the principal cannot fully control or monitor the
    agent’s actions and effort.
    Principal agent theory
  72. is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. Doing the right thing.
    Leadership
  73. Optimism, Conviction, Humor, Civility, Energy, Enterprise, Virtue, Intelligence, Verbal ability,
    Creativity, Judgement
    Leadership Qualities

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