Global Test on France and England

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  1. Protestant Reformation
    • 1517-1648
    • German monk Martin Luther disagrees with indulgences (corruption) of Catholic church--> 95 Thesis
    • -only Jesus can redeem, can't buy your way out of sinning
    • --> printing press

    • impacts:
    • religious fragmentation, secularization of state, greater opportunities for education, growth of capitalism, secularization of art
  2. Papacy
    • the central government of Latin Christianity
    • -in 1500's both gaining stature and suffering dissent
  3. Catholic Reformation
    • In response to protestant reformation (and in an effort to regain power)
    • catholic reformation--> reinforces Catholic supremacy--> Jesuits--> missions of conversion
  4. Calvinism
    • Calvin an extreme follower of Luthen
    • -Calvanists believe that even prayer not enough, God alone chooses salvation
    • -Churches very plain
  5. Characteristics of Absolutism
    • -Divine right
    • -secure cooperation of nobility
    • -key to success $--> new bureaucracy
    • -standing armies
    • -glorification of state over culture
    • -king above all, no say from governed
  6. Hobbes
    • mid 17th century, Leviathan
    • english civil wars

    • king is you, okay to disobey given laws, but there still needs to be absolutism because men are innately evil
    • social contract
    • the government is the people
  7. Bossuet
    theologian under Louis XIV

    • Divine right--> absolutism!
    • Hereditary royal authority
  8. Bureaucracy
    • Government with unelected government officials
    • -ex: in an absolutism monarchy
  9. Def: Huguenots
    Protestants of France
  10. Wars of Religion
    • 1562-1598
    • -result of tension between Protestant and Catholic
    • -random skirmishes
    • -1685, Louis XIV ends Protestant independence
    • -10% of the population huguenots
  11. Edict of Nantes
    • 1598
    • -Henry IV issues laws that temporarily allows for religious tolerance and independence of Protestants
  12. Henri IV
    • 1589-1610
    • -"a chicken in every pot"
    • -Edict of Nantes in 1598, Duke of Sully chief Minister
    • -lowered taxes, good for peasants
    • -"paulette":fee paid by royal officials
    • -revival of trade, lowered taxes

    • pragmatist
    • Henri le Grand
  13. Louis XIII
    • 1610-1643
    • -cut off English aid (seige of ports)
    • -urban protest lead to strengthening of prompt military support of the Paris government
  14. Cardinal Richelieu
    • 1585-1643
    • -regent for Louis XIII
    • -set in motion the workings of an absolutist state
    • -controlled nobility
    • -set up indendant system
    • -ruled thru fear--> outlawed duelling, knocked down castles
    • -curbs power of nobility, up power of French state
    • -forms the French Academy
  15. La Fronde
    • 1648-1653
    • -civil wars stemming from Mazarin's efforts to increase efforts thru taxation (for fighting Spain)
    • -rebellion
    • -causes government to compromise with bureaucrats for financial security
  16. Louis XIV
    • 1642-1715
    • -"sun king"
    • -divine right (had to obey God's laws and rule for the good of the people)
    • -domestication of the nobility
    • -the Fronde taught him that the only alternative to anarchy is an absolute monarchy
    • -built Versaille

    • "I am the state"
    • "I loved war too much"
  17. Mazarin
    • 1602-1661
    • -regent for Louis XIV
    • -causes the Fronde from increases in taxation, urban rebellion
  18. Indendents system
    • start 1634
    • bureaucrats acted as royal liaisons between regions of France and its central government
    • -financial, judicial, and policing duties
    • -responsible directly to Mazarin
    • -weakened influence of regional nobility (so Richelieu's happy)

    similar to Q'ing system of rule of avoidance
  19. Def: pragmatist
    A person who knows what tactics must realistically be employed in order to be strategic
  20. Versaille
    • -strict court ettiquette controlled nobility
    • -attitude towards lavishness and spending money positive
    • -intimidation factor toward foreign visitors
    • -mass every day
    • -domination over every detail
    • -workers died to build nbd
    • -built by Louis XIV (moved 1682)
    • -seized by mob in 1789
  21. Madam de Pompedor
    regent for Louis XV
  22. "Letter to People in Marseilles"
    • -increase in commerce/trade
    • -finance minister: Colbert, genius-mercantalist
    • -sell and don't buy/get money
    • -support for manufacturers
    • -subsidized production
    • -no tolls, repaired highways

    • -SAILING
    • -French Canada (Champlain), Haiti (prosperity from colonial holdings)
    • -Haitian sugar, Canadian furs
  23. Colbert
    • Finance minister under Louis XIV
    • Increase trade, lowers tolls
    • Merchants would approve
  24. "Revocation of the Edict of Nantes"
    • -Catholic absolutism
    • -Louis XIV the grandson of Henry IV
    • -no more Protestant schools
    • -no more practice
    • -ministers have to leave, but merchants can stay (support economy)
  25. "Life at Versailles"
    • -strict supervision of nobles
    • -preoccupied, competitive, attitude toward being in the King's favors
    • -less rebellion because of manners at Versaille
  26. "Louis XIV's Military Successes"
    • -Spain and England and Netherlands take back land
    • -sounds like Napolean in trying to conquer everything
    • -absolutism
  27. Constitutionalism
    • -monarchy, but king has a responsibility to the people
    • -limitation of government by law (written or unwritten)

    • monarchy: england
    • republic: US
    • -both by electorate (rich men)

    england had parliament- house of lords (aristocracy) and house of commons (merchants)
  28. Magna Carta
    • 1215
    • -King John
    • -law of the land
    • -Individual liberties

    set up constitutionalism ideals
  29. Henry VIII
    • ENGLAND 1509-1547
    • -formation of Anglican church (Pope grants annulment of marriage)
    • father to the bastard Elizabeth I with Anne Boleyn
    • think the tudors
  30. "Governance of England"
    • 1471
    • -England's system is such that the king is not above the law
    • -roots of representation of the people are early
  31. "Golden Speech"
    • 1601
    • -English Queen Elizabeth I's "swan song"
    • -portrays herself as loving, cares for people
    • -anti-divine right
    • -glory from the people
    • -"God has made me his instrument"
  32. "Speech to Parliament"
    • 1610
    • -James I
    • (-sounds like Bossuet, Leviathan)
    • -political father, head of body
    • -contrasts with Elizabeth--> king has final say, can rule thru fear, et.
  33. "Petition of Grievances"
    • 1610
    • -Parliament complains- James, don't impose taxes without our consent
    • -contrasting views of monarch and of Parliament
  34. England vs France (17th Century)
    • Government
    • -F:Absolutism, Louis XIV
    • -E: King with power checked by Parliament--> struggle

    • Religion
    • -F: Catholicism
    • -E: ANGLICAN church w/ lots of factions

    • Nobility
    • -F: NO TAXES, less power
    • -E: Taxes, people expect representation
  35. Decline in English Absolutism
    • James I believes in divine right- parliament unhappy
    • Charles--> brings country to crisis
    • Puritan reformation--> chaos in government--> military dictatorship
  36. Charles I
    • after James I
    • Abolishes Parliament
  37. Cromwell
    • 1653-1658 (rule)
    • military dictatorship, called commonwealth, or republican government
    • religious tolerance
    • constitution ripped up
  38. Capitalism
    • land is a commodity, labor--> urbanization, growth of market
    • money is power, so capitalism goes against absolutist ideals
Card Set
Global Test on France and England
france and england
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