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  1. Describe benefits of a fitness assessment
    • Provides an ongoing gathering of information, allowing a pft to modify and progress a client through an integrated training program.
    • Allows a pft to continually monitor a clients needs, functional capabilities, and physiological effects of exercise
    • enables the client to realize the full benefit of an individualized training program.
  2. Subjective information
    • General and medical history
    • Occupation
    • Lifestyle
    • medical
    • personal information
  3. Objective information
    • Physiological assessments
    • body composition testing
    • cardiorespiratory assessments
    • static and dynamic postural assessments
    • performance assessments
  4. Why is it important to know if a client sits for a large portion of the day?
    • Sitting indicator of hips flexed for prolonged periods of time
    • this can lead to tight hip flexors
    • tight hip flexors mean postural imbalances
    • sitting can also indicate rounded shoulders, head/shoulder fatigue
    • this leads to postural head and shoulder imbalances
  5. What does repetitive movements indicate during subjective info of fitness assessment
    • Repetitive movements create pattern overload to muscles and joints
    • this can lead to tissue trauma and thus kinetic chain dysfunction
    • eg. arms overhead for long periods of time may lead to shoulder soreness due to tight lattissimus dorsi and weak rotator cuff
  6. What might wearing dress shoes with a heel indicate in the subjective assessment
    • the ankle complex is in a plantar flexion position for extended time
    • leading to tightness in the gastrocnemius and soleus
    • leads to postural imbalances such as over pronation at the foot and ankle complex (flattening of arch)
  7. What might mental stress indicate in a subjective assessment?
    • mental stress or anxiety can lead to dysfunctional breathing
    • this can lead to postural distortion or kinetic chain dysfunction
    • eg. overuse of secondary respiratory muscles such as scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae, and upper trapezius
    • these muscles play a major postural role in kinetic chain
    • Inadequate O2 and retention of metabolic waste can lead to fatigued stiff muscles.
  8. What might recreation indicate?
    Physical activities like golf, tennis, skiing
  9. Hobbies might indicate?
    • Not necessarily physical but might indicate stressors to kinetic chain:
    • Gardening
    • playing cards
    • watching tv
    • playing video games
  10. Medical history is important component of subjective assessment because?
    • Provides info on chronic diseases (High BP, diabetes, heart disease)
    • Info on structure and function of client
    • past injuries
    • surgeries
    • conditions
  11. Past injuries as Ankle sprains might result in
    • decrease neural control of gluteus medius and maximus
    • in turn leads to poor control of lower extermeties during functional activities
  12. Knee injuries can cause
    • decreas neural control to muscles that stabilize the knee and lead to further injuries
    • non contact knee injuries often result in ankle or hip dysfunction
    • further hip ankle dysfunction can result in altered movement and force distribution of the knee
  13. Low back injuries can
    • cause decreased neural control to stabilize muscles of the core
    • resulting in poor stabilization of the spine
    • lead to dysfunction in upper and lower extremeties
  14. shoulder injuries cause
    • altered neural control of the rotator cuff
    • lead to instability of the shoulder joint
  15. Surgeries can
    • lead to dysfunction similar to an injury if not properly rehabilitated
    • eg. c section, appendectomy, shoulder, knee, back etc.
  16. Chronic conditions include
    • hypertension
    • cardiovascular disease
    • stroke
    • lung or breathing problems
    • obesity
    • diabetes mellitus
    • high cholesterol
  17. It is estimated that __% of the American adult population does not partake in 30 minutes of low to moderate physical activity on a daily basis. Resulting in > risk of _______.
    • 75%
    • chronic conditions (hypertension, obesity, etc)
  18. Medications prescribed for hypertension include:
    • beta blockers
    • calcium channel blockers
    • nitrates
    • vasodialators
    • diuretics
  19. Bronchodilators are prescribed for
    correct or prevent bronchial smooth muscle constriction in individuals with asthma or other pulmonary diseases
  20. Objective information is
    • gathered to provide the health and fitness professional with forms of measureable data
    • Includes: physiological assessments
    • body composition assessments
    • cardiorespiratory assessments
    • movement assessments (posture)
    • performance assessments
  21. On avereage resting heart rate for male is ___ BPM
    and ___ BPM for female
    • male =70 BPM,
    • female=75 BPM
  22. When taking a pulse what are important things to remember?
    • touch should be gentle
    • take at same time of day
    • must be taken when client is calm
  23. Where are circumference measures taken:
    • Neck: across adams apple
    • Chest: nipple line
    • waist: narrowest part; or if none accross navel
    • Hips: widest portion of buttocks
    • Thighs: 10 in above patella
    • calves: max circumference
    • Biceps: max circ.
  24. Portable instrument that conducts elcectrical current through the body to measure fat
    Bioelectrical impedance
  25. Skin fold sites and formula
    • Biceps: vertical fold on front of arm. Arm relaxed, halfway between shoulder and elbow
    • Iliac Crest: a 45 deg fold just above iliac crest and medial to the axillary line
    • Triceps: a vert fold on back of upper arm, arm relaxed, halfway shoulder/elbow
    • Subscapular: 45 deg angle fold 1-2 cm below the inferior angle of the scapula
    • All on right side; Sum measures in mm use Durnin Womersley table for age and sex = % body fat
  26. How do you calculate fat mass and lean body mass?
    • Body fat % * scale weight = fat mass
    • Scale weight - fat mass = lean body mass
  27. BMI =
    • BMI = Weight/height (m2)
    • =kg/m2
    • exceeding 25 = obese
  28. Obesity classifications
    • Mild 25-30
    • Moderate 30-35
    • Severe >35
  29. Waist to hip ratio
    • smallest part of waist/largest part of hip
    • above 0.8 for women
    • above 0.95 for men
    • may put individuals at risk for many diseases
  30. Max heart rate calculations and zones
    • Max HR = 220-age
    • Zone 1: HRmax * 0.65 and 0.75
    • Zone 2: HRmax * 0.80 and 0.85
    • Zone 3: HRmax * 0.86 and 0.90
  31. Describe cardiovascular efficiency calculation for 3 min step test
    • have a client do 24 steps per min on 18 in step (may be lowered) for 3 min (approx 72 steps)
    • Rest for 1 min
    • then take pulse for 30 sec (recovery pulse)
    • calc fitness level by:

    Duration of exercise (sec) * 100/Recovery Pulse * 5.6

    • 28-38 poor Zone 1
    • 39-48 fair Zone 1
    • 49-59 avg Zone 2
    • 60-70 good Zone 2
    • 71-100 very good Zone 3
  32. Describe purpose of 3 heart rate training zones
    • Zone 1: Builds aerobic base and aids in recovery
    • Zone 2: Increases endurance and trains the anaerobic threshold
    • Zone 3: Builds high end work capacity
  33. Describe steps in rockport step test
    • Determine max HR (220-age)
    • Record weight
    • Walk 1 mile as fast as pos yet controlled
    • Record time to complet 1 mi
    • Take HR immediately (BPM)
    • Calculate VO or oxygen consumption using formula
    • Identify appropriate score and appropriate category/zone
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