Diversity of Life

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Diversity of Life
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2011-12-19 23:50:08
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Biology natural selection
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Final Exam preperation
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  1. What are the 10 unifying concepts in Biology?

    "All living things___________"
    • -are made of cells
    • -are complex and ordered
    • -respond to stimuli
    • -grow, develop and reproduce
    • -require energy
    • -maintain homeostasis
    • -are influenced by the environment
    • -use DNA
    • -require water
    • -obey the laws of chemistry and physics
  2. What is evolution? (Biologically)
    the gradual change of species over time
  3. Why is evolution only a theory?
    It is a body of interconnected concepts, supported by scientific reasoning and experimental evidence that explains many observable phenomena.
  4. Why is evolution important?
    it provides framework that all biologists use to understand life.
  5. What are the 4 major points for understanding evolution?
    • 1. Differences in individuals from the same species.
    • 2. Charecteristics can be inherited
    • 3. The environment will have different effects on different individuals with different traits.
    • 4. Some genetic material will be selected by the environment, whil others will be selected against.
  6. Fitness= ___________ + _____________
    Survival and Reproduction
  7. 1.Voyage of the ______________.
    2. Co-wrote ____________ with ______________.
    3. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck believed in ________________.
    4. Type of Bird studied to form hypothesis.
    • HMS BEAGLE
    • Origin of Species, Alfred Russel Wallace
    • "Inheritance of acquired charecteristics."
    • Finch
  8. Natural Selection: a ________ of _________ evolutionary change. This is NOT a ___________ process. The influence on _________ changes the probability on whether a trait will be selected for or against.
    • mechanism of adaptive
    • random
    • fitness
  9. Natural selection could not happen if nothing could be selected for without _____________ among a population.
    Variation
  10. The ____________ must change and apply different selective__________ to population for natural selection to occur. Also, a mechanism that allows chromosomes to be passed onto the next generation or ______________ is needed.
    • environment
    • pressures
    • inheritability
  11. ____________-lends to evolution of homogenic populations w/in a species (immigration and emmigration) variability is shared
    gene flow
  12. ____________-exeplified by self fertilizing plants and
    results from sexual selection (to maximize fitness).
    Non-random mating
  13. ____________-imprt in small populations (enviro
    changes or needs of species change.
    Genetic Drift
  14. ____________-small group of dispersers colonize an
    area (genetic variation may not be the same as the parent pop)
    Founder Effect
  15. ____________-large population declines to small size
    (regrow population)
    Bottleneck effect
  16. Evolution will not occur if what 5 assumptions are not met?
    1. No _________ takes place.
    2. No ______ are ________ to or from other sources.
    3. ________ mating occurs.
    4. Population is too ______ that _____ ______ is affected.
    5. No ________ ________ occurs.
    • mutations
    • gases, transferred
    • random
    • large genetic drift
    • natural selection
  17. Macroevolution referes to dramatic change that occurs over a ______ span of time.
    LOOOONG
  18. 2 Types of Speciation
    • Anagenesis
    • Cladogenesis
  19. _________ - a species "splits" into 2 or more daughter species
    Cladogenesis
  20. Change within a particular species w.in a particular linguage over time is called ___________.
    Anagenesis
  21. 2 ideas regarding rat of macroevolution
    • Gradualism
    • Punctuated equilibrium
    • (both are occuring)
  22. Open Ocean = _________ Zone
    Pelagic
  23. Light penetrates through the _________ zone.
    Photic
  24. Reproductive Isolating methods 2 types:
    • Prezygotic
    • Postzygotic
  25. In order to get speciation, populations must _______ and become ___________ ____________.
    • Diverge
    • reproductively isolated
  26. When a population is geographically isolated; what type of speciation occurs?

    3 examples
    Allopatric

    • Founder Event: subset colonizes
    • Vicariance event: split by boundaries
    • Loss of Intermediates: extinction of connecting populations
  27. When a population is NOT geographically isolated; what type of speciation occurs?

    fyi: this and the other one are both evident through ______ ________. Which represents closely related species all descended from a common ancestor with each adapted to a different environment.
    Sympatric

    Adaptive Radiation
  28. The branch of biology that seeks to understand evolutionary relationships is called _________.

    Phylogeny= _______ _________.
    • Systematics
    • family trees
  29. Taxanomic hierarchy
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  30. Viruses: they are so important you can't survey ___ without them.
    -they are NOT ______.
    -made of "parasitic" _______ (DNA+RNA wrapped in ______)
    A ______virus has RNA.
    Depend on ______ ______ for reproduction and use no energy.
    • light
    • organisms, proteins
    • chemicals
    • retro-
    • host organisms
  31. 1. Lands on cell and injects ______ _______.
    2. DNA is in cell and is ______ by building components using ribosomes.
    3. Assemply of components. Released once cell gets too big.

    This is the ________ cycle??
    • Genetic Material
    • replicated

    Lytic!
  32. 1. Attachment/Entry- DNA shot into cell and imbeds itself onto ______ ___.
    2. Formation: cells replicate by splitting w/cell DNA
    3. ______ trigger kicks it into the other cycle.

    This is the ________ cycle?
    • bacterial DNA
    • Environmental

    Lysogenic
  33. Bacteria have:
    3 types:
    Most _______ organism on Earth.
    Perform much of world's _________.
    Responsible for many bad _________.
    Reproduce by ______ _______ or _________.
    cytoplasm, cell wall, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, capsule, bacterial flagellum

    Coccus (round), Bacillus (oval), Spirilum

    • abundant
    • photosynthesis
    • diseases
    • binary fission and budding
  34. Variability in bacteria results from:
    1. Mutations
    2. engulfing a DNA fragment from environment and incorporating it, called ___________.
    3. _________ which is directly related to lysogenic cycle (becomes part of DNA)
    4. Conjugation- ______ of material bw 2 types
    • Transformation
    • Transduction
    • Swapping
  35. Prokaryotes that are structurally similar to bacteria but are more closely related to eukaryotes are called ________.

    Exist in ______ environments.
    Archaea.

    Extreme
  36. Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes- which one has...
    ____ have no membrane bound nucleus.
    ____ membrane bound organelles.
    _____ are larger
    _____ are single and multicellular organsims
    _____ Bacteria and Archaea
    _____3.5 Billion y.a
    _____1.5 B y.a
    _____complex cell organization
    • pro
    • euk
    • euk
    • pro
    • pro
    • euk
    • euk
  37. Exomembrane hypothesis:

    how prokaryotes became eukaryotes
    Prokaryote unfolds surface membrane then there was evolution of a nucleus, then a nucleic envelope and golgi was formed.
  38. How did organelles like mitochondria and chloroplasts gained entry into eukaryotes?

    _____ were derived from aerobic purple material.

    chloroplasts derived from ______.
    Endosymbiosis

    Mitochondria

    Cyanobacteria
  39. 4 Traditional Eukaryotic groups:
    • Protista
    • Fungi
    • Plantae
    • Animalia
  40. This has a single flagellum or not (fungi +animals). broken down into Opistocants and ________ (Blob that moves via cytoplasmic flow)
    UNIKONTS

    Amoebozoa
  41. Chromalveolates: platids that were derived from _____ _____ with red alga.
    -Rhizaria- no unifying structural trait genetic evidence link it.
    -Alveolates- (ciliates, ______) have alveoli sacs on there membrane, used closed mitosis.
    • secondary endosymbiosis
    • dinoflagellates
  42. Excavates- Euglenozoa and Archaeplastida
    example
    Green plants
  43. Derived charecteristics:
    unique charecteristics to a small subset and not reflected in a common ancestor
  44. How do protists reproduce?
    • Asexual
    • simple mitosis like division
    • budding od smaller daughter cell
    • produces several individuals almost simultaneously (schizogemy)
    • or Sexual
    • union of haploid cells by meiosis
  45. This organism causes malaria; ________.
    Dinoflagellates cause ______.
    Giardia = _________.
    • plasmodium
    • red tide
    • the shits
  46. Amoebas move via ______ and ______ ______.
    -transparent
    -eat bacteria, algae and protists via _______.
    • pseudopodia (feet) and cytoplasmic streaming
    • phagocytosis
  47. Paramecium move via ____.
    - 2 distinct types of ______.
    -____ prey w/ trichocysts
    • cilia
    • nuclei
    • harpoon
  48. What do all plants have? 3 things
    • cell walls (cellulose)
    • chlorophyll A + B
    • photosynthesis (light to chemical energy)
  49. 4 Major advance in plant evolution
    • movement to land
    • vascular tissue
    • seeds
    • flowers
  50. Commonalities among land plants:
    • have some form of embryo protection
    • alternation of generations (lifecycle consists of multicellular and diploid phases)
  51. Alternation of Generations
    1. Gametophyte (Haploid)
    2. _____ splits haploid into egg and sperm.
    3. Then ______ occurs to get diploid zygote and _____.
    4. Sporophyte is born which is __loid)
    5. Sporangia forms
    6. meiosis then spores
    • Mitosis
    • fertilization, embryo
    • diploid
  52. 3 variations of alternation of generations
    • Sporophyte depends on Gametophytes (Bryophyte)
    • Sporophyte and Gametophyte are independent (seedless vascular)
    • Gametophytes depend on sporophytes. (seed plants)
  53. Other key factors amongs land plants:
    • Mechanism to protect from desication
    • Structures to increase photosynthetic surface area
    • progression to a dominant vertical dipoid generations
  54. Bryophytes: 3 types
    -oldest living descendents of 1st plants
    -non-vascular, and lack ____ (special cells)
    • Liverworts
    • Hornworts
    • Mosses
    • tracheids
  55. Vascular system
    xylem- conduct ____ and ____ _____ up from roots
    phloem - transport ____ and ____ throughout the plant
    • water and dissolved minerals
    • sucrose and hormones
  56. Diffusion
    Requires zero energy from organism.
    Concentration gradient.
    downfall?
    slow and inefficient
  57. Lifecycle of Bryophytes
    • Sporophyte dependent on gametophyte (haploid as adults)
    • Specialized meiosis split male and female
    • fertilization happens @ diploid state on top of plant
    • reproductive structure is a flower on top w/diploid
    • releases hapoid sporres that grow to diploid
  58. Characteristics of Water:
    • cohesion and adhesion
    • high specific heat
    • high surface tension
    • high heat of vaporization
    • solids are less dense
    • solubility
  59. Laws of Thermodynamics:
    Energy not created or destroyed

    Entropy (state of disorder) tends to increase
  60. How do organisms in general survive??
    • Obtain Energy
    • Obtain Water
    • Obtain necessary nutrients and elements
    • Gasses are need for metabolic activities
  61. Displacement Behavior:
    • is usually thought of as self-grooming, touching, or
    • scratching, which is displayed when an animal has a conflict between two
    • drives, such as the desire to approach an object, while at the same time being
    • fearful of that object. (sex)
  62. 6CO2 + 12H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6H2O+ 6O2
    Photosynthesis
  63. C6H12O6 +6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O = ATP
    Aerobic Respiration
  64. 1 molecule of glucose yield 36-38 molecules of ATP
  65. Cell size and shape
    • most important factor influencing the acquisition and use of
    • energy in unicellular organisms.
  66. Larger cells require more energy to have proportionally less
    surface area to support this volume.
    Consequently, unicellular organisms may have adapted shapes that
    facilitate access to energy resources and diffusion throughout their cytoplasm.
  67. Why do all organisms require energy?
    to fight off entropy
  68. Biggest energy bang for buck?
    maintaining consistency
  69. Habituation
    animals learn to ignore repetitive, irrelevent stimuli
  70. Imprinting
    newborns become intimately linked to their parents (critical period)
  71. Imsight Learning
    Most complex, can relate what learned in other situations to new situations
  72. Photosynthes has 2 reactions:
    • light dependent reactions ( capture energy from sunlight, and make ATP)
    • Carbon fixation (dark reactions)(use ATP to make organic molecules from CO2)
  73. Homeostasis
    mainenance of a relatively constant internal environment (water , temp, chemical) despiteexternal environment.
  74. Where doe most plant biomass come from?
    The air
  75. 6 Factors that influence autotrophs in aquatic systems
    • light
    • flow/water movement
    • water clarity
    • temperature
    • substrate type
    • chemistry/nutrients
  76. Photosynthesis limited by:
    light then CO2 then temp
  77. 4 major charecteristics of exretory system
    • kidneys
    • ureter
    • bladder
    • urethra
  78. Mobile can move
    Motile can move whenever the hell it wants

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