It is a body of interconnected concepts, supported by scientific reasoning and experimental evidence that explains many observable phenomena.
Why is evolution important?
it provides framework that all biologists use to understand life.
What are the 4 major points for understanding evolution?
1. Differences in individuals from the same species.
2. Charecteristics can be inherited
3. The environment will have different effects on different individuals with different traits.
4. Some genetic material will be selected by the environment, whil others will be selected against.
Fitness= ___________ + _____________
Survival and Reproduction
1.Voyage of the ______________.
2. Co-wrote ____________ with ______________.
3. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck believed in ________________.
4. Type of Bird studied to form hypothesis.
Origin of Species, Alfred Russel Wallace
"Inheritance of acquired charecteristics."
Natural Selection: a ________ of _________ evolutionary change. This is NOT a ___________ process. The influence on _________ changes the probability on whether a trait will be selected for or against.
mechanism of adaptive
Natural selection could not happen if nothing could be selected for without _____________ among a population.
The ____________ must change and apply different selective__________ to population for natural selection to occur. Also, a mechanism that allows chromosomes to be passed onto the next generation or ______________ is needed.
____________-lends to evolution of homogenic populations w/in a species (immigration and emmigration) variability is shared
____________-exeplified by self fertilizing plants and
results from sexual selection (to maximize fitness).
____________-imprt in small populations (enviro
changes or needs of species change.
____________-small group of dispersers colonize an
area (genetic variation may not be the same as the parent pop)
____________-large population declines to small size
Evolution will not occur if what 5 assumptions are not met?
1. No _________ takes place.
2. No ______ are ________ to or from other sources.
3. ________ mating occurs.
4. Population is too ______ that _____ ______ is affected.
5. No ________ ________ occurs.
large genetic drift
Macroevolution referes to dramatic change that occurs over a ______ span of time.
2 Types of Speciation
_________ - a species "splits" into 2 or more daughter species
Change within a particular species w.in a particular linguage over time is called ___________.
2 ideas regarding rat of macroevolution
(both are occuring)
Open Ocean = _________ Zone
Light penetrates through the _________ zone.
Reproductive Isolating methods 2 types:
In order to get speciation, populations must _______ and become ___________ ____________.
When a population is geographically isolated; what type of speciation occurs?
Founder Event: subset colonizes
Vicariance event: split by boundaries
Loss of Intermediates: extinction of connecting populations
When a population is NOT geographically isolated; what type of speciation occurs?
fyi: this and the other one are both evident through ______ ________. Which represents closely related species all descended from a common ancestor with each adapted to a different environment.
The branch of biology that seeks to understand evolutionary relationships is called _________.
Phylogeny= _______ _________.
Viruses: they are so important you can't survey ___ without them.
-they are NOT ______.
-made of "parasitic" _______ (DNA+RNA wrapped in ______)
A ______virus has RNA.
Depend on ______ ______ for reproduction and use no energy.
1. Lands on cell and injects ______ _______.
2. DNA is in cell and is ______ by building components using ribosomes.
3. Assemply of components. Released once cell gets too big.
This is the ________ cycle??
1. Attachment/Entry- DNA shot into cell and imbeds itself onto ______ ___.
2. Formation: cells replicate by splitting w/cell DNA
3. ______ trigger kicks it into the other cycle.
This is the ________ cycle?
Most _______ organism on Earth.
Perform much of world's _________.
Responsible for many bad _________.
Reproduce by ______ _______ or _________.
Variability in bacteria results from:
2. engulfing a DNA fragment from environment and incorporating it, called ___________.
3. _________ which is directly related to lysogenic cycle (becomes part of DNA)
4. Conjugation- ______ of material bw 2 types
Prokaryotes that are structurally similar to bacteria but are more closely related to eukaryotes are called ________.
Exist in ______ environments.
Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes- which one has...
____ have no membrane bound nucleus.
____ membrane bound organelles.
_____ are larger
_____ are single and multicellular organsims
_____ Bacteria and Archaea
_____3.5 Billion y.a
_____1.5 B y.a
_____complex cell organization
how prokaryotes became eukaryotes
Prokaryote unfolds surface membrane then there was evolution of a nucleus, then a nucleic envelope and golgi was formed.
How did organelles like mitochondria and chloroplasts gained entry into eukaryotes?
_____ were derived from aerobic purple material.
chloroplasts derived from ______.
4 Traditional Eukaryotic groups:
This has a single flagellum or not (fungi +animals). broken down into Opistocants and ________ (Blob that moves via cytoplasmic flow)
Chromalveolates: platids that were derived from _____ _____ with red alga.
-Rhizaria- no unifying structural trait genetic evidence link it.
-Alveolates- (ciliates, ______) have alveoli sacs on there membrane, used closed mitosis.
Excavates- Euglenozoa and Archaeplastida
unique charecteristics to a small subset and not reflected in a common ancestor
How do protists reproduce?
simple mitosis like division
budding od smaller daughter cell
produces several individuals almost simultaneously (schizogemy)
union of haploid cells by meiosis
This organism causes malaria; ________.
Dinoflagellates cause ______.
Giardia = _________.
Amoebas move via ______ and ______ ______.
-eat bacteria, algae and protists via _______.
pseudopodia (feet) and cytoplasmic streaming
Paramecium move via ____.
- 2 distinct types of ______.
-____ prey w/ trichocysts
What do all plants have? 3 things
cell walls (cellulose)
chlorophyll A + B
photosynthesis (light to chemical energy)
4 Major advance in plant evolution
movement to land
Commonalities among land plants:
have some form of embryo protection
alternation of generations (lifecycle consists of multicellular and diploid phases)
Alternation of Generations
1. Gametophyte (Haploid)
2. _____ splits haploid into egg and sperm.
3. Then ______ occurs to get diploid zygote and _____.
4. Sporophyte is born which is __loid)
5. Sporangia forms
6. meiosis then spores
3 variations of alternation of generations
Sporophyte depends on Gametophytes (Bryophyte)
Sporophyte and Gametophyte are independent (seedless vascular)
Gametophytes depend on sporophytes. (seed plants)
Other key factors amongs land plants:
Mechanism to protect from desication
Structures to increase photosynthetic surface area
progression to a dominant vertical dipoid generations
Bryophytes: 3 types
-oldest living descendents of 1st plants
-non-vascular, and lack ____ (special cells)
xylem- conduct ____ and ____ _____ up from roots
phloem - transport ____ and ____ throughout the plant
water and dissolved minerals
sucrose and hormones
Requires zero energy from organism.
slow and inefficient
Lifecycle of Bryophytes
Sporophyte dependent on gametophyte (haploid as adults)
Specialized meiosis split male and female
fertilization happens @ diploid state on top of plant
reproductive structure is a flower on top w/diploid
releases hapoid sporres that grow to diploid
Characteristics of Water:
cohesion and adhesion
high specific heat
high surface tension
high heat of vaporization
solids are less dense
Laws of Thermodynamics:
Energy not created or destroyed
Entropy (state of disorder) tends to increase
How do organisms in general survive??
Obtain necessary nutrients and elements
Gasses are need for metabolic activities
is usually thought of as self-grooming, touching, or
scratching, which is displayed when an animal has a conflict between two
drives, such as the desire to approach an object, while at the same time being
fearful of that object. (sex)
6CO2 + 12H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6H2O+ 6O2
C6H12O6 +6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O = ATP
1 molecule of glucose yield 36-38 molecules of ATP
Cell size and shape
most important factor influencing the acquisition and use of
energy in unicellular organisms.
Larger cells require more energy to have proportionally less
surface area to support this volume.
Consequently, unicellular organisms may have adapted shapes that
facilitate access to energy resources and diffusion throughout their cytoplasm.
Why do all organisms require energy?
to fight off entropy
Biggest energy bang for buck?
animals learn to ignore repetitive, irrelevent stimuli
newborns become intimately linked to their parents (critical period)
Most complex, can relate what learned in other situations to new situations
Photosynthes has 2 reactions:
light dependent reactions ( capture energy from sunlight, and make ATP)
Carbon fixation (dark reactions)(use ATP to make organic molecules from CO2)
mainenance of a relatively constant internal environment (water , temp, chemical) despiteexternal environment.
Where doe most plant biomass come from?
6 Factors that influence autotrophs in aquatic systems
Photosynthesis limited by:
light then CO2 then temp
4 major charecteristics of exretory system
Mobile can move
Motile can move whenever the hell it wants