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What chemistry finding would suggest acute renal failure?
elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
A smoker who also takes supplemental vitamen K would be expected to:
have enhanced clotting ability.
You are pruning a rose bush and puncture the skin on your thumb with a thorn. The next day, you note that the area is swollen. What is the best explanation of the swelling that occurred?
localized vasodilation and increased capillary permiability results in plasma leakage into the tissue surrounding the injury site
In the presence of calcium, thrombin will encourage:
Patients with lymphoma are most likely to experience abnormal function of
Sickle hemoglobin has a flawed chemical structure that results in...
erythrocyte deformity when O2 levels are low.
a common problem with of sickle cell disease (enlargement of the spleen).
Patients with chronic sickle cell disease have...
chronic helolytic anemia.
condition in which there are not enough red blood cells in the blood, due to the premature destruction of red blood cells
Sickle cell anemia is...
a hereditary disease involving abnormal hemoglobin.
What are the primary cells involved in the immune response?
Decreased plasminogen secretion would directly result in...
normal body process that keeps naturally occurring blood clots from growing and causing problems
Chemical released by a fibrin clot. Plasminogen is converted into plasmin. Plasmin is capable of dismantling, or lysing, a clot through the process of fibrinolysis.
An excess of red blood cells. Increases the risk of stroke and heart attack.
In an emergency situation, if administer blood to a patient whose blood type is unknown, you should administer type ____________ blood.
Components of the inflammatory process...
- 1) increased blood flow
- 2) vasodilation
- 3) incresased capillary permeability
- 4) plasma leakage into the tissue surrounding the injury site
when cells follow chemical signals
Endogenous fibrinolysis occurs as result of the...
production of plasmin.
If your patient has type O+ blood, what other blood type(s) can she receive?
What are some qualities of leukocytes?
- 1) protect against foreign invaders
- 2) can travel through blood vessel walls into the surrounding tissues
- 3) follow chemical signals to an infection site
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
Disorder of coagulation caused by systemic activation of the coagulation cascade. Activated thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin in the circulating blood. Circulating thrombin cleaves fibrinogen to form fibrin clots throughout the circulation. This can cause widespread thrombosis and, occasionally, end-organ ischemia.
Cancerous disorder of plasma cells. Cancerous plasma cells crowd out healthy cells and lead to a reduction in blood cell production.
What would result in a shift to the right of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve?
- 1) decreased pH
- 2) increased CO2
- 3) increased temperature
- 4) increased 2, 3-BPG
Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
describes the relationship of hemoblobin saturation to pH, CO2, temperature and 2, 3-BPG
Hormone responsible for red blood celll production. An increase in it's production would NOT result in anemia.
What are some functions of the kidney?
- 1) excretion of waste
- 2) regulation of water and electrolyte balance and pH
- 3) decretion of erythropoietin
- (its function does NOT include excretion of glucose)
When is chronic renal failure (CRF) diagnosed?
when 70% of the nephrons are lost and the patient is clinically unstable
What happens to uremia and creatinine levels in a patient with chronic renal failure?
uremia and creatinine levels increase
What is the mechanism of action of ACE inhibitors?
Inhibits the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II.
What are common complications of renal dialysis?
- 1) bleeding from the needle puncture site
- 2) dysfunction of the fistula
- 3) localized infection at the needle puncture site
- (air embolism is NOT)
A patient undergoes neurological changes during hemodialysis. Of the following, which is the most likely cause of these neurologic abnormalities?
B) accumulated blood urea
surgical anastomosis of an artery and a vein
Structures that may be affected in a urinary tract infection in a female patient?
urethra, bladder, kidney
Epididymitis pain would be located in the...
Tenderness associated with pyelonephritis is best evaluated by percussing...
just lateral to the spine slightly inferior to the 12th rib.
specific type of urinary tract infection (UTI) that generally begins in your urethra or bladder and travels up into your kidneys
Pre-renal cause of acute renal failure?
embolism of the renal vein
Which of the following would interfere with urine production?
a) tumor in the renal pelvis
b) toxic damage to the nephrons
c) renal calculi
d) benign prostatic hypertrophy
toxic damage to the nephrons
series of two or more generalized motor seizures without an intervening period of consciousness
The most common cause of lower back pain is...
idiopathic back pain
back pain with no apparent cause may be diagnosed as having idiopathic back pain
Your patient states that he often experiences a painful cramping and "freezing up" of his hands and feet while handwriting or walking, respectively. This best describes ______ .
A patient with speech impairment following a stroke would have involvement in the ____ lobe.
- ear disorder that involves irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the inner ear. symptons include
- 1) abnormal sensation of movement (vertigo)
- 2) difficulty focusing the eyes because of involuntary eye movements
- 3) dizziness
- 4) hearing loss in one ear
- 5) loss of balance, such as falling toward one side
- 6) nausea and vomiting
- 7) ringing or other noises in the ears (tinnitus)
Your patient has a history of epilepsy and is experiencing loss of consciosness, tonic-clonic muscle activity, and erratic ocular movement. Based on this, what else might you also expect to find?
- 1) increased oral secretions
- 2) urinary incontinence
- 3) impaired respiration
(formerly known as grand mal seizures or gran mal seizures) are a type of generalized seizure that affects the entire brain. Tonic–clonic seizures are the seizure type most commonly associated with epilepsy and seizures in general, though it is a misconception that they are the only type.
You are transporting a male patient to the hospital for evaluation after a possible seizure when you notice the patient's loss of consciousness. His muscles start to contract so that he is arching his back. This best describes the _____ phase of a generalized seizure.
Which of the following should be part of the general management of a patient with altered mental status?
a) IV of NS KVO
c) hyperventilation with 100% O2
d) 50% dextrose
IV of NS KVO
form of spina bifida in which some of the spinal cord and meninges are protruding from a defect in the spine.
Your female patient is experiencing sharp, stabbing, right-sided face pain of her upper and lower lips, cheek, and around her orbit. This best describes...
a) temporomandibular joint syndrome
b) trigeminal neuralgia
c) a cluster headache
d) bell's palsy
nerve disorder that causes a stabbing or electric-shock-like pain in parts of the face
Peripheral nerves carry information to and from the brain. They also carry signals to and from the spinal cord to the rest of the body. Peripheral neuropathy means these nerves don't work properly. Peripheral neuropathy may be damage to a single nerve. It may be damage to a nerve group. It may also affect nerves in the whole body.
- Tingling or burning in the arms and legs may be an early sign of nerve damage. These feelings often start in your toes and feet. You may have deep pain. This often happens in the feet and legs. You may lose feeling in your legs and arms. Because of this, you may not notice when you step on something sharp. You may not notice when touch something that is too hot or cold. You may not know when you have a
- small blister or sore on your feet.
What are some of causes of a transient ischemic attack?
- 1) a small embolus
- 2) cerebrovascular spasm
- 3) hypotension
Which of the following is evaluated in the Los Angeles Prehospital Stroke Screen, but is not part of the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale?
a) facial droop
b) arm drift
c) blood glucose level
Los Angeles Prehospital Stroke Screen
- a) have pt look up, smile, and show teeth. look for left or right side droop.
- b) compare grip strength of upper extremities. look for left or right side weak or no grip.
- c) assess arm strength for drift or weakness. loof for left or right side drift down or falls rapidly.
- (considerations: age > 45y/o, no history of seizures or epilepsy, duration of symptons is less than 24hrs ago, pt is not wheel chair bound or bed ridden, blood glucose is between 60 and 400 mg/dl)
Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale
- facial drop: have pt look up, smile, and show his/her teeth
- arm drift: have pt lift arms up an hold them out with eyes closed for 10 seconds. (abnormal if 1 arem drifts down or asymmetrical movement of the arms)
- abnormal speech: have the patient say. "You can't teach an old dog new tricks." (abnormal if the words are slurred, the wrong words are used, or the patient is aphasic)
Name some of the potential cause of sncope?
- a) cardiac dysrhythmia
- b) hypovolemia
- c) vagal stimulation
type of generalized seizure characterized by a rapid loss of consciousness and motor coordination, muscle spasms, and jerking motions.