Mass (music)

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Mass (music)
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2011-12-20 06:39:51
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  1. Kerie
    The Kyrie is the first movement of a setting of the Ordinary of the Mass: Kyrie eleison; Christe eleison; Kyrie eleison

    Meaning: "Lord have mercy; Christ, have mercy; Lord, have mercy."

    This is from the ancient (Biblical New Testament) Greek language, unlike the rest of the mass which is Latin. Kyrie movements often have a structure that reflects the concision and symmetry of the text. Many have a ternary (ABA) form, where the two appearances of the phrase "Kyrie eleison" consist of identical or closely related material and frame a contrasting "Christe eleison" section. Or AAABBBCCC' form is also found later on. Famously, Mozart sets the "Kyrie" and "Christe" texts in his Requiem Mass as the two subjects of a double fugue.
  2. Gloria
    The Gloria is a celebratory passage praising God and Christ:

    Gloria in excelsis Deo et in terra pax hominibus bonae voluntatis. Laudamus te, benedicimus te, adoramus te, glorificamus te, gratias agimus tibi propter magnam gloriam tuam, Domine Deus, Rex caelestis Deus Pater omnipotens. Domine Fili unigenite, Jesu Christe, Domine Deus, Agnus Dei, Filius Patris, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis; qui tollis peccata mundi, suscipe deprecationem nostram. Qui sedes ad dexteram Patris, miserere nobis. Quoniam tu solus Sanctus, tu solus Dominus, tu solus Altissimus, Jesu Christe, cum Sancto Spiritu in gloria Dei Patris. Amen.

    Meaning: "Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace to men of good will. We praise You, we bless You, we adore You, we glorify You, we give thanks to You for Your great glory, Lord God, heavenly King, almighty God the Father. Lord Jesus Christ, only begotten Son, Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father, who taketh away the sins of the world. Have mercy on us; You who take away the sins of the world, hear our prayers. Who sits at the right hand of the Father, have mercy upon us.For You are the only Holy One, the only Lord, the only Most High, Jesus Christ, with the Holy Spirit in the glory of God the Father, Amen.

    In Mass settings (normally in English) composed for the Church of England's Book of Common Prayer liturgy, the Gloria is commonly the last movement, because it occurs in this position in the text of the service. In Order One of the newer Common Worship liturgy, however, it is restored to its earlier place.
  3. Credo
    The Credo, a setting of the Nicene Creed, is the longest text of a sung Mass:

    We believe in one God the Father, the maker of Heaven, of all things seen and unseen.

    etc.
  4. Sanctus
    The Sanctus is a doxology praising the Trinity:

    Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus, Dominus Deus Sabaoth; pleni sunt coeli et terra gloria tua

    Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Hosts; Heaven and earth are full of Your glory. Hosanna in excelsis Hosanna in the highest.A variant exists in Lutheran settings of the Sanctus. While most hymnal settings keep the second person pronoun, other settings change the second person pronoun to the third person. This is most notable in J.S. Bach's Mass in B minor, where the text reads gloria ejus ("His glory"). Martin Luther's chorale Isaiah, Mighty in Days of Old, and Felix Mendelssohn's setting of the Heilig! (German Sanctus) from his Deutsche Liturgie also use the third person.
  5. Benedictus
    The Benedictus is a continuation of the Sanctus:

    Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini.

    Blessed is He who comes in the name of the LordHosanna in excelsis is repeated after the Benedictus section, often with musical material identical to that used after the Sanctus, or very closely related.In Gregorian chant the Sanctus (with Benedictus) was sung whole at its place in the mass. However, as composers produced more embellished settings of theSanctus text, the music often would go on so long that it would run into the consecration of the bread and wine. This was considered the most important part of the Mass, so composers began to stop the Sanctus halfway through to allow this to happen, and then continue it after the consecration is finished. This practice was forbidden for a period in the 20th century.
  6. Agnus Dei
    The Agnus Dei is a setting of the "Lamb of God" litany:

    Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis.Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi,miserere nobis.Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, dona nobis pacem.

    Meaning: Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world,have mercy upon us.Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world,have mercy upon us.Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world,grant us peace.
  7. Nunc Dimittis
    Following the distribution of the Sacrament, it is customary in most Lutheran churches to sing the Nunc Dimittis.

    In a liturgical Mass, there are other sections that may be sung, often in Gregorian chant. These sections, the "Proper" of the Mass, change with the day and season according to the Church calendar, or according to the special circumstances of the Mass. The Proper of the Mass is usually not set to music in a Mass itself, except in the case of a Requiem Mass, but may be the subject of motets or other musical compositions. The sections of the Proper of the Mass include the Introit, Gradual, Alleluia or Tract (depending on the time of year), Offertory and Communion.

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