Nutrition_CH1_The_Cell

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PicOlio
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124631
Filename:
Nutrition_CH1_The_Cell
Updated:
2012-01-06 11:12:25
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Human Nutrition components proteins apoptosis biological energy
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Description:
Human Nutrition Ch 1 - The Cell: A Microcosm of Life
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  1. Phospholipids are major constituents of _____.

    A. receptor molecules on cell surfaces
    B. the nucleolus
    C. membrane lipid bilayers
    D. cholesterol
    C. membrane lipid bilayers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Membrane proteins serve which of the following functions?

    A. regulation of membrane fluidity
    B. hormonal degradation
    C. detoxification
    D. energy transduction
    D. energy transduction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Which molecule regulates membrane fluidity, thereby regulating membrane permeability and affecting the function of proteins embedded in the membrane?

    A. glycocalyx
    B. cholesterol
    C. water
    D. polar head group on the phospholipd
    B. cholesterol
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Which of the following is an attribute of membranes?

    A. symmetrical (inner face and outer face the same)
    B. consist primarily of structural proteins
    C. rigid structures that hold proteins firmly in one spot
    D. asymmetrical (inner face and outer face different)
    D. asymmetrical (inner face and outer face different)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. The carbohydrate moieties of the plasma membrane glycoproteins and glycolipids are:

    A. structural components located between the bilayers of the membranes.
    B. oriented inwardly, toward the cytoplasmic matrix.
    C. the sugar residues that form the glycocalyx.
    D. oriented equally inwardly and outwardly to maintain symmetry.
    C. the sugar residues that form the glycocalyx
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Proteins associated with the membrane through ionic interactions and located on or near the membrane surface are called _____.

    A. integral proteins
    B. rough endoplasmic reticulum
    C. peripheral proteins
    D. Golgi apparatus
    C. peripheral proteins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. In the cell structure the _____ provides support and controls the movement of cell organelles.

    A. microtrabecular lattice
    B. matrix space
    C. mitochondrion
    D. endoplasmic reticulum
    A. microtrabecular lattice
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. The microtrabecular lattice facilitates velocity of a synthetic pathway by binding enzymes of the pathway so that the product of one enzyme is released in close proximity to the next enzyme for which it is a substrate, including, for example, enzymes of ________.

    A. ketone production
    B. the Krebs cycle
    C. beta-oxidation
    D. fatty acid synthesis
    D. fatty acid synthesis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. The mitochondrion is the organelle responsible for:

    A. producing most of the cell's metabolic energy (ATP)
    B. transcribing DNA into mRNA
    C. ridding the cell of toxins.
    D. sequestering calcium needed for the contractile apparatus.
    A. producing most of the cell's metabolic energy (ATP).
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Which of the following is selectively permeable, not porous, serving as a barrier?

    A. mitochondrial matrix
    B. cytoplasmic matrix
    C. mitochondrial outer membrane
    D. mitochondrial inner membrane
    D. mitochondrial inner membrane
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Enzymes required for all of the following EXCEPT _____ occur within the mitochondrion.

    A. the TCA cycle
    B. glycolysis
    C. fatty acid oxidation
    D. oxidative decarboxylation
    B. glycolysis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Genes contained in mitochondria DNA code for proteins vital to the production of ATP and:

    A. three antioxidant proteins.
    B. all other proteins functioning within the mitochondrial matrix.
    C. most nuclear proteins.
    D. are inherited only from the mother
    D. are inherited only from the mother
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. All of the following cells are capable of oxidative metabolism EXCEPT _____.

    A. enterocytes
    B. erythrocytes
    C. adipocytes
    D. hepatocytes
    B. erythrocytes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. The nucleus is the cell organelle responsible for:

    A. phagocytosis
    B. producing most of the cell's metabolic energy (ATP)
    C. sequestering calcium needed for the contractile apparatus
    D. most of the initiation and regulation of cellular activity.
    D. most of the initiation and regulation of cellular activity.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. The entire genome for an organism is:

    A. encoded by the mRNA in liver cells and transported to other ces as needed.
    B. copied (duplicated) during translation
    C. encoded within the nuclear DNA of each cell
    D. encoded only within the sperm and egg cells.
    C. encoded within the nuclear DNA of each cell.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Which of the following nitrogenous bases is unique to DNA?

    A. thymine
    B. cytosine
    C. guanine
    D. uracil
    A. thymine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Transcription is the process by which:

    A. the genetic information (base sequence) in a single strand of DNA is used to specify a complementary sequence of bases in an mRNA chain.
    B. genetic information in an mRNA molecule specifies the sequence of amino acids in the protein product.
    C. synthesis of a daughter duplex DNA molecule is made identical to the parental duplex DNA
    D. the polypeptide chain of the protein product is extended.
    A. the genetic information (base sequence) in a single strand of DNA is used to specify a complementary sequence of bases in an mRNA chain.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. The rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) is associated with:

    A. ribosomes and cytochrome P450 enzymes
    B. lipid synthesis.
    C. the calcium ion pump necessary for contractile process.
    D. protein synthesis
    D. protein synthesis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. What part of a cell consists of a network of membranous channels that serves as a mechanism for communication between the inner and exterior portions of the cell?

    A. nucleus
    B. lysosome
    C. cytoplasm
    D. endoplasmic reticulum
    D. endoplasmic reticulum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is found in most cells, but particularly in:

    A. skeletal muscle and non-lactating mammary glands
    B. the adrenal cortex, gonads and liver
    C. ribosomes
    D. mitochondria
    B. the adrenal cortex, gonads and liver
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Lysosomes are the organelles that serve the cell by:

    A. sequestering calcium needed for the contractile apparatus.
    B. producing most of the cell's metabolic energy (ATP).
    C. initiating and regulating most of cellular activity
    D. carrying out phagocytosis
    D. carrying out phagocytosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Peroxisomes are the organelles that:

    A. detoxify molecules such as ethanol by oxidization
    B. transcribe DNA into mRNA
    C. carry out phagocytosis
    D. produce most of the cell's metabolic energy (ATP).
    A. detoxify molecules such as ethanol by oxidization.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Correct terminal amino acid sequences on newly synthesized proteins function to:

    A. cause degradation of misshapen proteins.
    B. inhibit secretion of proteins that were intended to be secreted.
    C. direct proteins to their intended destination in organelles.
    D. cause diseases such as phenylketonuria
    C. direct proteins to their intended destination in organelles.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Receptor proteins on the cell surface:

    A. modify the cell's response to its environment.
    B. direct other proteins to their intended destination in organelles
    C. produce most of the cell's metabolic energy (ATP).
    D. rid the cell of toxins.
    A. modify the cell's response to its environment
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Catalytic regulatory mechanisms that maintain balance in the regulation of metabolic pathways necessary for life of the organism include:

    A. pathological cell death
    B. increasing the synthesis of constitutive enzymes
    C. modulation of allosteric enzymes
    D. decreasing the synthesis of constitutive enzymes
    C. modulation of allosteric enzymes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Modulators alter the activity of regulatory enzymes by:

    A. slowing Na pumps.
    B. preventing calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
    C. binding with allosteric sites and changing the shape of the enzyme
    D. transporting new proteins from the nucleus
    C. binding with allosteric sites and changing the shape of the enzyme.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Bcl-2 interferes with the apoptotic process by:

    A. reducing cell size
    B. blocking apoptotic stimuli by interfering with receptors.
    C. regenerating normal chromatin
    D. preventing efflux of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion
    D. preventing efflux of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Most human enzymes are synthesized intracellularly and function within the same cell so that finding a particular enzyme active in the blood can indicate each of the following EXCEPT:

    A. a possible tumor
    B. a healthy state
    C. a damaged liver
    D. alcoholism
    B. a healthy state
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Which of the following have diagnostic value for disease states?

    A. intracellular enzymes that express their activity in the blood abnormally due to a disease process
    B. secreted enzymes such as clotting proteins in blood
    C. enzymes that are widely distributed among many tissues
    D. nuclear enzymes
    A. intracellular enzymes that express their activity in the bloo abnormally due to a disease process
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Which of the following enzymes is used to diagnose hepatic disease?

    A. isocitrate dehydrogenase
    B. phosphofructokinase
    C. ornithine carbomoyl transferase
    D. alanine aminotransferase
    D. alanine aminotransferase
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Transfer of genetic information, physical exertion and anabolism are all examples of _____.

    A. heat sinks
    B. processes that produce energy that can be stored as ATP
    C. active transport systems
    D. processes that require energy stored as ATP.
    D. processes that require energy stored as ATP.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Which of the following nutrients is NOT considered an energy-producing macronutrient?

    A. proteins
    B. fats
    C. carbohydrates
    D. vitamins
    D. vitamins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. About 40% of chemical energy stored is in the form of high-energy bonds and about 60% is released as heat as the result of:

    A. energy in joules.
    B. combustion of macronutrients
    C. delta G.
    D. metabolism of macronutrients
    D. metabolism of macronutrients
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. The quantity of energy required by an endothermic reaction is _____ the quantity released in the reverse exothermic reaction.

    A. the same as
    B. less than
    C. greater than
    D. not releated to
    A. the same as
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. The activation energy is defined as the:

    A. energy released from an endothermic reaction
    B. energy required to produce an endothermic reation
    C. energy required to prevent an exothermic reaction
    D. energy needed to raise the energy of a reactant to its transition state.
    D. energy needed to raise the energy of a reactant to its transition state.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. When nutrients are systematically oxidized through a particular pathway such as glycolysis, and the net energy transformation is exothermic, individual reactions:

    A. must balance the system by being endothermic
    B. may be either endothermic or exothermic
    C. are neither endothermic nor exothermic
    D. must also be exothermic.
    B. may be either endothermic or exothermic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. The body's energy reservoir is mostly in the form of adenosine triphosphate because:

    A. all molecules formed during glycolysis have a lower free energy
    B. ATP has a high activation energy
    C. ADP can accept phosphate from high-energy donor molecules and then, as ATP, transfer it to lower-energy receptor molecules.
    D. ATP can move freely throughout the body
    C. ADP can accept phosphate from high-energy donor molecules and then, as ATP, transfer it to lower-energy receptor molecules.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. Each of the following is an energy-requiring process EXCEPT:

    A. active transport
    B. muscular contraction
    C. biosynthesis
    D. catabolism
    D. catabolism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. When a third phosphate group is added to ADP using inorganic phosphate, the type of reaction that occurs is _____.

    A. free
    B. endothermic
    C. exothermic
    D. standard
    B. endothermic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. An enzyme such as hexokinase facilitates the activation of glucose by _____ by ATP.

    A. metabolism
    B. decarboxylation
    C. phosphorylation
    D. hydroxylation
    C. phosphorylation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. In what part of the cell does oxidative phosphorylation take place?

    A. nucleus
    B. mitochondrion
    C. reticulo-endothelium
    D. cytoplast
    B. mitochondrion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. What is the major supplier of energy in metabolism?

    A. ATP generated by oxidative phosphorylation
    B. ATP generated by substrate-level phosphorylation
    C. GTP transformation to ATP
    D. CP
    A. ATP generated by oxidative phosphorylation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. Most cellular reactions are reversible since the same enzyme that catalyzes the conversion also catalyzes the reverse reaction.

    A. True
    B. Sometimes False
    C. Sometimes True
    D. False
    A. True
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. Systematic oxidation of glucose to carbon dioxide and water is also called:

    A. anabolism
    B. catabolism
    C. genetic transfer
    D. active transport
    B. catabolism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. Which of the following values for the free energy of hydrolysis (deta G0) indicates the most exothermic compound?

    A. +3,300
    B. -6,600
    C. -3,300
    D. +6,600
    B. -6,600
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. Dehydrogenases are a particular type of _____.

    A. reductases
    B. lyases
    C. oxidases
    D. oxidoreductases
    D. oxidoreductases
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. During cellular reduction, a molecule is reduced by:

    A. accepting oxygen
    B. donating electrons
    C. donating hydrogens
    D. accepting electrons
    D. accepting electrons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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