Nutrition_CH2_Digestive_System

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Author:
PicOlio
ID:
124645
Filename:
Nutrition_CH2_Digestive_System
Updated:
2012-01-06 11:30:17
Tags:
oral cavity esophagus stomach small intestine accessory organs colon neural regulation regulatory peptides
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Description:
Human Nutrition Chapter 2 - The Digestive System: Mechanism for Nourishing the Body
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  1. What tissue contains white blood cells and protects against ingested microorganisms?

    A. muscularis mucosa
    B. serosal tissue
    C. myenteric plexus
    D. mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
    D. mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. The volume of a normal stomach ranges from _____ when empty to 1.5 L (~6 cups) when full.

    A. 50 mL (~0.25 cup)
    B. 100 mL (~0.5 cup)
    C. 250 mL (~1 cup)
    D. 750 mL (~3 cups)
    A. 50 mL (~0.25 cup)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. The pancreas is a digestive system accessory organ with two types of active tissue, the ducted exocrine tissue that produces digestive enzymes and the:

    A. ducted erythropoietic tissue that produces red blood cells
    B. liver-like tissue that produces bile
    C. ductless endocrine tissue that secretes insulin and glucagon
    D. ductless absorptive tissue that controls bicarbonate
    C. ductless endocrine tissue that secretes insulin and glucagon
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Pancreatic juice that enters the duodenum through the sphincter of Oddi contains _____.

    A. intrinsic factor
    B. bilirubin and iron
    C. anions such as bicarbonate and chloride
    D. hormones such as gastrin
    C. anions such as bicarbonate and chloride
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Digestive enzymes functioning at the brush border are produced by:

    A. chief cells in the oxyntic glands
    B. the pancreatic duct cells
    C. hepatocytes
    D. the intestinal mucosal cells
    D. the intestinal mucosal cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Which of the following is a neuropeptide that functions to regulate digestion and absorption?

    A. gastrin
    B. substance P
    C. cholecystokinin
    D. secretin
    B. substance P
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Gastrin is a hormone released by G-cells in the stomach and functions to:

    A. no effect
    B. stimulate release of HCl and cellular growth in the GI tract.
    C. inhibit gastric motility
    D. transport nutrients across the mucosa
    B. stimulate release of HCl and cellular growth in the GI tract
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Somatostatin is a regulatory peptide synthesized in the pancreatic and intestinal cells that appears to:

    A. inhibit release of gastrin, secretin, and motilin
    B. increase gallbladder contraction
    C. inhibit the action of neurotensin
    D. enhance the actions of motilin
    A. inhibit release of gastrin, secretin, and motilin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Which structural component of the GI tract controls GI secretions and local blood flow?

    A. lumen
    B. myenteric nerve plexus
    C. submucosal nerve plexus
    D. muscularis mucosae
    C. submucosal nerve plexus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. What is the general term for the inactive secreted form of many digestive enzymes?

    A. lipase
    B. synthetase
    C. trypsinogen
    D. zymogen
    D. zymogen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. The purpose of secretion of mucus by neck cells in the oxyntic gland of the stomach is to:

    A. slow the production of intrinsic factor
    B. protect the epithelium from mechanical and chemical damage.
    C. activate pepsinogen to pepsin
    D. stimulate secretion of HCl
    B. protect the epithelium from mechanical and chemical damage.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Parietal cells, found both in oxyntic glands and pyloric glands of the stomach, secrete _____.

    A. mucus
    B. hydrochloric acid
    C. gastrin
    D. bicarbonate
    B. hydrochloric acid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Chief cells, found in oxyntic glands in the body of the stomach, secrete _____.

    A. mucus
    B. bicarbonate
    C. hydrochloric acid
    D. pepsinogen
    D. pepsinogen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. A function of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice is to:

    A. stimulate secretion of gastrin and CCK
    B. denature secondary and tertiary protein structure
    C. digest protein, functioning as an endopeptidase.
    D. protect the stomach lining from damage
    B. denature secondary and tertiary protein structure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Which of the following digestive fluids is the most acidic?

    A. bile
    B. saliva
    C. pancreatic juice
    D. gastric juice
    D. gastric juice
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Approximately 1 - 5 mL (~1 tsp) of chyme enters the duodenum about:

    A. twice per minute
    B. once per meal
    C. twice per hour
    D. once per second
    A. twice per minute
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. The majority of all digestive enzymes are produced in what organ?

    A. liver
    B. gallbladder
    C. pancreas
    D. esophagus
    C. pancreas
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Secretin is the major hormone responsible for:

    A. activating elastase
    B. alkalizing the chyme that has entered the small intestine
    C. causing release of bile into the small intestine
    D. stimulating secretion of HCl into the stomach
    B. alkalizing the chyme that has entered the small intestine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Cholecystokinin is the hormone primarily responsible for:

    A. alkalizing the chyme that has entered the small intestine
    B. stimulating secretion of HCl into the stomach
    C. activating eastase
    D. causing release of bile into the small intestine
    D. causing release of bile into the small intestine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. The gallbladder:

    A. is a modified lymphoid gland
    B. removes cholesterol from circulation
    C. concentrates and stores bile
    D. resynthesizes bile salts returning to the liver
    C. concentrates and stores bile
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid ionize and form micelles more efficiently when they are:

    A. in an acidic environment
    B. conjugated with glycine or taurine
    C. conjugated with sodium or potassium
    D. rendered fat soluble by esterification
    B. conjugated with glycine or taurine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Resins such as cholestyramine bind bile in the GI tract, thus decreasing serum cholesterol because enterohepatic recirculation of bile acid is reduced from the usual _____ reabsorption.

    A. 30%
    B. 90%
    C. 65%
    D. 10%
    B. 90%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. What percent of cholesterol in bile is usually excreted?

    A. none of it
    B. 10%
    C. 25%
    D. 50%
    D. 50%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Foods such as yogurt that contain live cultures of certain bacteria are known as:

    a probiotics
    b. predigestives
    c. foods that stimulate the growth of gut flora
    d. prebiotics
    a. probiotics
  25. It takes only about 30 minutes for most of the carbohydrate, protein and fat to be absorbed from chyme after it enters the small intestine, and it takes about _____ for fecal matter to move through the colon.

    A. 1 to 2 hour
    B. 6 to 12 hours
    C. 2 to 6 hours
    D. 12 to 70 hours
    D. 12 to 70 hours
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. The mechanisms responsible for absorption of nutrients into the epithelial cell of the vilus depend upon all of the following EXCEPT:

    A. the solubility of the nutrient in fat or water
    B. the length of the large intestine
    C. the concentration gradient or eectrical gradient
    D. the size of the molecule to be absorbed
    B. the length of the large intestine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. What percentage of the water and sodium entering the colon each day is absorbed?

    A. 90-95%
    B. 10%
    C. 50-60%
    D. 20-25%
    A. 90-95%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Of the 3 short-chain fatty acids providing energy for bacteria, which one is absorbed by colonic epithelial cells and taken up for use in the liver?

    A. acetate
    B. butyrate
    C. propionate
    D. oleate
    C. propionate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. What normal process that occurs in the colon must be controlled in individuals who have liver disease to prevent coma?

    A. production of gas such as methane by gut bacteria
    B. absorption of ammonia generated by gut bacteria
    C. creatinine release by gut bacteria
    D. excretion of urea
    B. absorption of ammonia generated by gut bacteria
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Fecal material contains all of the following EXCEPT:

    A. bacteria
    B. sloughed GI cells
    C. absorbed nutrients
    D. inorganic matter
    C. absorbed nutrients
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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