Crmj 302

The flashcards below were created by user meyersh on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. 2 explanations for a homogenous division of kids (low income and minoriteis) at the end of the system...?
    • 1. Involvement Hypothesis
    • ----low income/minorities commit more serious delinquent acts, heavily involved in system
    • 2. Selection Bias Hypothesis
    • ----players of juvenile system are singling out lower class/minorites and they end up at end of system.
  2. Legal information factored into situation when deciding what to do with kids
    • 1. prevoius police contact/offense history
    • 2. Legal gravity of the offense: status offense, misd. felony?
    • 3. aggravating/mitigating factors
  3. non legal informatin factored into situations when deciding what to do with kids...
    • 1. is the kid in school?
    • 2. family situations, parents providing support network?
    • 3. age and attitude...
  4. black & reiss 1970
    ----1 of 2 pioneering police studies looking for racial imbalance in arrests.

  5. --cops making decisions based on what citizens wanted
    --suspect demeanor
  6. Pilivian v. briar 1964
    ----1 of 2 pioneering police studies looking for racial imbalance in arrests.
    • --of all felony incidetns, they all resulted in an attmept of arrest
    • --involvement hypothesis found to be true, explains dispartiy for minorities.
    • ---Minority citizens making the complaint are more likely to want the kids busted than their white counterpart citizen. (Shows police arent racist)
  7. 5 factors that shape minority youth's attitudes towards police
    • 1. Race and ethnicity
    • 2. Gender
    • --boys are out and about more than girls, less supervised than girls....chivalry hypothesis
    • 3. negative contact w/ police
    • 4 vicaroius contact w/ police : heard about an experience
    • 5 neighborhood conditions
  8. what is Distributive Justice?
    Just give the outcome to a person, whether it's negative or explanation given.
  9. what is procedural justice?
    give steps taken to get the outcome

    was i treated fairly?
  10. Thomas grisso argued that juveniles...
    -cannot fully understand or exercise their rights under the miranda warning. (4/5 of juveniles dont)

    -arent able to knowingl and intenlligently waive their rights.
  11. The Perse rule says that...
    if there is an adult present during the time a kid waives his rights, its legit.
  12. the totality of circumstances takes into considerations...
    • age
    • interrogation conditions
    • kids IQ
  13. 3 decision making options for juvenile intake (cindy waller)
    • 1. Council & Close w/ consequences
    • 2. DPA (deferred prosectuion agreement)
    • 3. Court-delinquency petition (1-3: delinquency)
  14. JIPS...
    Juvenile intensive probation supervision (truancy)
  15. Best piece of informatoin to decide a juvenile case:
    was the juvenile detained beyond 36 hours in detention...?
  16. Goffman's Total institution covers 3 things...
    • -can't leave the community
    • -everything is scheduled/controlled
    • -social distance between supervisors and kids is asymmetrical, they have the authority.
  17. Diversion means to...
    deflect kids away from involvement in crime
  18. widening the net means to...
    five more options for the lower category for the crime. ex: give a drivers safety class for a first speeding ticket)
  19. 3 diversion schemes for net widening
    • wider net--larger pool of youths
    • stronger net--impose more conditions as part of the diversion.
    • Different net--agencies offering own versions of diversion ex: schools
  20. Old vs. New net widening
    • old: very informal (1899), curbsonte justice by police
    • new: 1960's, much more formal, more grant money!
  21. Ideal v. Real net widening
    -side tracking kids from court is difficult due to net widening.
  22. 4 Different waiver mechanisms for juveniles ( who has the discretion?)
    • -Concurrent jurisdiction (prosecutor discretion)
    • -Statutory exlusion (law makers discretion)
    • -Judicial waiver (judge discrection)
    • -reverse waiver (tried as adult, reversed back to juvenile court)
  23. Who is the most resource advantaged player in the juvnile justice system? why?
    • The prosecutor
    • -can charge youth w/ whatever crime they want
    • -can negotiate/plea bargain
    • -make recommenadtions to judge
    • -can transfer into adult court
  24. What US supreme court case set the age at 18 for all capital punishments?
    Roper v. Simmons
  25. 3 things juvenile intake needs to figure out:
    • 1. have jurisdiction over kid (he/she a minor? unlawful act committed?
    • 2. to release or detain the kid
    • 3. decide to either: counsel, defer prosecutin agreement, recommend petition to court.
  26. What does the adjudication hearing decide?
    whether to convict the kid or not
  27. what 3 things does the predisposition report do?
    • 1. provides judge w/ more complete picture of offender
    • 2. assists judge in tailoring the disposition of the case to the offenders needs
    • 3. leads to the ID of + factors that indicates the liklihood of rehabilitation
  28. What can the system do with kids once theire in the system? 3 options...
    • -community based release (probation) (most popular)
    • -out of the community resource (group home)
    • -secure institution ran by DOC.
  29. What 2 obvious factors do judges base their decisions on?
    legal gravity of offense

    prior arrest record/system contact
  30. what non obvious factors do judges base their decisions on?
    • -attitude
    • -philosphy of judge
    • -years of experience
    • -resources in community
  31. What is positive recidivism?
    juvenile starts in system by committing serious crime and after some time w/ a probation officer is only committing petty crimes from time to time. community sees this as a success.
  32. Probation officers rank their clients on what 3 levels?
    • high risk
    • medium risk
    • low risk
  33. when ranking their clients, probatin officers will talk to whom to get information about the kid? what are they trying to figure out?
    parents, judge, friend, etc.

    If the kid has a stake in conformity...
  34. Do high risk kids in the system generally have a support network?
    no, lacking a strong support netowork of family and friends
  35. What does Symbolically Deputize mean?

    Who will a probatoin officer symbollically deputuize?
    • -To extend my social control
    • To be the ears and eyes when the kid does something wrong,

    Parents of Medium and low risk kids
  36. what does role Identity confusion mean?
    the probation officer becomes more of a police officer than a probation officer.

    May even start to act as a parent of the kid, getting strict!!!
  37. What is JIPS? what are its 4 levels?
    Juvenile Intensive Probation Supervision

    • Decreased Caseload-->
    • Increased Contact-->
    • Tighter Supervision-->
    • Reduced Recidivism
  38. What are the 4 characteristics of a juvenile institution that will fail?
    • -poorly trained staff
    • -large, overcrowded facility
    • -poor resources
    • -prolonged stay
  39. What is Medicalization of defiance?
    • attaching a psychiatric label to a kids outbreaks/disobediance.
    • -saying they have a disease to describe status offenders.
  40. what is transinstitutionalization?
    the redirection of offenders into psychiatric programs or help.
  41. 5 factors of effective delinquency prevention programs
    • 1. focus on major causes of delinquency. (Not self esteem like many studies do, cant change that)
    • 2. Are intensive
    • 3. focus on juveniles who are at "high risk" for delinquency
    • 4. Begin early
    • 5. run in the community (keep delinquents w/ pro-social people)
Card Set:
Crmj 302
2011-12-20 22:33:54
juvenile justice

Show Answers: