Nutrition_CH3_Carbohydrates

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Author:
PicOlio
ID:
124651
Filename:
Nutrition_CH3_Carbohydrates
Updated:
2011-12-20 16:52:54
Tags:
carbohydrates simple complex digestion absorption transport distribution gycemic response metabolism regulation
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Description:
Human Nutrition CH 3 Carbohydrates
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  1. A molecule with equal numbers of carbon and oxygen atoms and twice as many hydrogen atoms is classified as a:

    A. carbohydrate
    B. protein
    C. fat
    D. vitamin
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. A carbohydrate containing 6 carbons and an aldehyde group is caled a(n):

    A. ketohexose
    B. aldohexose
    C. ketopentose
    D. aldopentose
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Carbon atoms with 4 different atoms or groups covalently attached are said to be:

    A. linear
    B. symmetrical
    C. chiral
    D. rotated
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Hemiacetals and hemiketals refer to cyclized forms of monosaccharides and are represented by _____ projections.

    A. stereoisomeric
    B. Haworth
    C. anomeric
    D. Fischer
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Pentose sugars are important for:

    A. production of nucleotides
    B. vitamin degradation
    C. fatty acid synthesis
    D. polymerization of glucose
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Disaccharides are digested:

    A. within the enterocyte after absorption
    B. in the stomach
    C. at the brush border
    D. by alpha-amylase
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Starch exists as both:

    A. glycogen and sucrose
    B. cellulose and hemicellulose
    C. maltose and isomaltose
    D. amylose and amylopectin
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Which of the following homopolysaccharides made of glucose cannot be digested by humans?

    A. cellulose
    B. amylopectin
    C. amylose
    D. glycogen
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Glycosidase enzymes perform which of the following functions?

    A. hydrolysis of polysaccharides
    B. glycolysis
    C. gluconeogenesis
    D. glucose transport
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. What is a key enzyme in digestion of disaccharides?

    A. salivary amylase
    B. alpha-amylase
    C. sucrase
    D. pancreatic amylase
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Which of the following carbon bonds are digested by isomaltase?

    a. beta-1,4
    b. alpha-1,6
    c. beta-1,6
    d. apha-1,4
    b
  12. What is the process by which glucose enters the mucosal cells?

    A. diffusion
    B. facilitated diffusion
    C. pinocytosis
    D. active transport
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. What monosaccharide is the exclusive constituent molecule of all starches?

    A. galactose
    B. ribose
    C. fructose
    D. glucose
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Which glucose transporter is responsible for basal, or constitutive, glucose uptake?

    A. GLUT 1
    B. SGLT1
    C. GLUT 6
    D. GLUT 4
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Which hormonal changes occur in response to a rise in blood glucose concentration?

    A. decreased insulin, and increased glucagon
    B. decreased insulin, and increased glucocorticoids
    C. increased insulin, and decreased glucagon
    D. increased insulin, and increased glucagon
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. What is the pathway by which glucose is released from glycogen?

    A. gluconeogenesis
    B. glycogenesis
    C. glycolysis
    D. glycogenolysis
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Which of the following tissues release glucose to the blood between meals?

    A. brain
    B. muscle
    C. adipose
    D. liver
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Glycogenesis is a process involving

    A. reactions that convert glycogen to protein
    B. reactions that convert glucose to glycogen
    C. synthesis of fatty acid
    D. reactions that convert glucose to pyruvate
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Metabolizing monosaccharides aerobically through glycolysis, the pyruvate dehdrogenase complex, the Krebs cycle and electron transport results in:

    A. carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen
    B. dietary fiber and ammonia
    C. water, carbon dioxide, and energy
    D. glucose, oxygen and energy
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Which of the following pathways occurs in the mitochondria?

    A. Krebs cycle
    B. glycogenolysis
    C. glycolysis
    D. glycogenesis
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. What organelle is missing from erythrocytes, requiring them to use glycolysis as the sole provider of ATP?

    A. endoplasmic reticulum
    B. mitochondrion
    C. cytoplasmic matrix
    D. lysosome
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. In the Cori cycle, lactate is primarily used for _____.

    A. gluconeogenesis in the liver
    B. fuel for brain and nervous tissue
    C. gluconeogenesis in the muscle
    D. urea synthesis in the liver
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Under aerobic conditions within a cell how many ATPs are formed during glycolysis by substrate level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation of the NADH + H+ if the malate-aspartate shuttle is used?

    A. four
    B. eight
    C. six
    D. two
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. In one turn of the Krebs cycle, how many ATPs are formed?

    A. 12
    B. 6
    C. 38
    D. 24
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Pentose phosphates and NADPH produced during the hexose monophosphate shunt are important for all of the following EXCEPT _____.

    A. synthesis of DNA and RNA
    B. synthesis of fatty acids
    C. breakdown of glycogen
    D. maintenance of reducing subtrates
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. A tissue which has high activity of the hexose monophosphate shunt is:

    A. skin tissue
    B. skeletal muscle tissue
    C. lactating mammary gland tissue
    D. heart tissue
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. The phosphofructokinase reaction in glycolysis is bypassed in gluconeogenesis by which of the following enzymes?

    A. glucose 6-phosphatase
    B. pyruvate kinase
    C. glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase
    D. 1,6-bisphosphatase
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Modulators of allosteric enzymes generally act by:

    A. causing genetic expression of the enzyme
    B. decreasing the substrate used by the enzyme
    C. altering the conformational structure of the enzyme
    D. increasing degradation of the enzyme
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Epinephrine positively regulates _____.

    A. glycogen phosphorylase in the liver
    B. glycogen synthase in the liver
    C. glycogen synthase in the muscle
    D. glycogen phosphorylase in the muscle
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. The iron-sulfur center of Complex I of the electron transport chain collects only ________ from the FMN system.

    A. hydrogens
    B. hydrogens and electrons
    C. electrons
    D. oxygens
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. By bypassing Complex I and entering the electron transport chain at Complex II, electrons carried by one moe FADH2 generate _____ mole(s) ATP.

    A. 1
    B. 4
    C. 2
    D. 3
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Translocation of protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space accompanies electron flow:

    A. from cytochrome b to the iron-sulfur center
    B. through the iron-sulfur centers into the cytosol
    C. from cytochrome c to cytochrome c1
    D. through Complexes I, III, IV
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. According to the Chemiosmotic theory ATP is formed when:

    A. hydrogen pumps concentrate hydrogen ions in the mitochondrial matrix.
    B. protons pumped into the intermembrane space flow through Complex V with sufficient energy driven by the concentration and electrical gradient to phosphorylate ADP to ATP.
    C. oxidative phosphorylation is uncoupled from electron transport.
    D. hydrogen passes through a protein channel with great force into the intermembrane space.
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. F0 F1 ATPase is another name for _____.

    A. cytochrome oxidase
    B. riboflavin
    C. ubiquinone
    D. Complex V
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. Disparity in electrical charge and in proton concentration between the intermembrane space and the mitochondrial matrix:

    A. is formed by passive diffusion of protons into the intermembrane space.
    B. creates substrate-level phosphorylation of creatine phosphate.
    C. provides energy to form the high energy bond between ADP and inorganic phosphate during oxidative phosphorylation.
    D. drives the carnitine shuttle
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. During usual metabolic oxidation about _____ of the energy released by electron flow is lost as heat.

    A. 20%
    B. 30%
    C. 40%
    D. 60%
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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