Nutrition_CH4_Fiber

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Author:
PicOlio
ID:
124662
Filename:
Nutrition_CH4_Fiber
Updated:
2011-12-20 17:55:52
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fiber
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Description:
Human Nutrition Ch 4 - Fiber
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  1. Carbohydrates and lignin that are nondigestible by human enzymes and are intact and intrinsic in plants are:

    A. dietary fiber
    B. Maillard products
    C. functional fiber
    D. crude fiber
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Carbohydrates that are nondigestible by human enzymes, have been isolated, extracted or manufactured, and have been shown to have beneficial physiological effects in humans are:

    A. net carbohydrates
    B. dietary fiber
    C. crude fiber
    D. functional fiber
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Plant cell walls contain:

    A. proteins that have been combined with sugars
    B. plant gums
    C. primarily chitin and chitosan
    D. most types of dietary fiber
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Whole grains and brans contain substantial quantities of _____.

    A. gums
    B. lignin
    C. hemicellulose
    D. pectin
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. The structure of cellulose is:

    A. based on polygalacturonic acids, some of which are methylated.
    B. a heterogeneous group of polysaccharide substances.
    C. a long, linear polymer of 1,4 beta-linked glucose units
    D. comprised of many phenol units
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. The structure of lignin is:

    A. a long, linear polymer of 1,4 beta-linked glucose units
    B. based on polygalacturonic acids, some of which are methylated
    C. comprised of many phenol units
    D. a heterogeneous group of polysaccharide substances
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Pectin is a water-soluble, gel-forming fiber that is used commercially to make jellies and to provide fiber in enteral formulas whose structure is:

    A. based on polygalacturonic acids, some of which are methylated.
    B. a long, linear polymer of 1,4 beta-linked glucose units.
    C. comprised of many phenol units.
    D. a heterogeneous group of polysaccharide substances.
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Gums are:

    A. hydrocolloids that are secreted at a site of injury on a plant or surround the endosperm of some seeds and that are used as thickening agents.
    B. also known as pectins.
    C. water-soluble, gel-forming fibers that are used commercially to make jellies and to provide fiber in enteral formulas.
    D. structural components of mature root vegetables that are poorly digested by colonic bacterial microflora.
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. The cholesterol-lowering beta-glucans are primarily found in:

    A. onions and garlic
    B. cereal brans such as oats and barley
    C. root vegetables
    D. all citrus fruits
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Fructans found in chicory, onions and Jerusalem artichokes:

    A. are sweet and extracted for use as sugar substitutes
    B. are fibers that promote the growth of bifidobacteria in the gut
    C. are fibers that are linear glucose compounds
    D. are small indigestible 2-carbon molecules with unknown physiological function
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. What type of resistant starch is purposely created by chemical modification of food starch such as cross-bonding?

    A. RS2
    B. RS3
    C. RS1
    D. RS4
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Soluble fibers:

    A. form viscous gels, delaying nutrient absorption and transit time within the small intestine
    B. speed up gastrointestinal transit time
    C. function as enhancers for peptidases necessary for the digestion of peptides
    D. improve lipid absorption by slowing transit time
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. When fibers are non-fermentable, which of the following occurs?

    A. Microbes in the colon proliferate
    B. Digestion of fats and carbohydrates increases
    C. The environment of the lumen is acidified
    D. Viscous gels are formed
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Which of the following high-fiber foods is least effective in lowering serum cholesterol?

    A. oat bran
    B. fruits and vegetables
    C. wheat products
    D. soy products
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. All of the following are fermentable EXCEPT _____.

    A. lignin
    B. pectin
    C. gums
    D. resistant starch
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Acetate, butyrate and propionate are formed from fermentable fibers and are collectively called _____.

    A. lactates
    B. grain alcohols
    C. short-chain fatty acids
    D. protopectins
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Which diet factors are associated with a low risk of developing colorectal cancer?

    A. high fiber/low fat
    B. low fiber/high fat
    C. low fiber/low fat
    D. high fiber/high fat
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Which of the following is a typical gastrointestinal response to ingestion of dietary fiber?

    A. increased enterohepatic recycling of bile acids
    B. delayed gastric emptying
    C. constipation
    D. increased glucose absorption
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Fiber lowers serum cholesterol concentrations by which of the following mechanisms?

    A. shift of bile acid pools toward cholic acid which upregulates HMGCoA reductase
    B. decreased transit time
    C. production of propionate from gut fermentation of fiber.
    D. increased enterohepatic recycling of bile acids
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. When fluid intake is adequate, which fiber is the most effective in increasing fecal bulk?

    A. beta-glucans
    B. rice bran
    C. wheat bran
    D. oat bran
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Butyric acid is a volatile short-chain fatty acid said to have:

    A. binding effects on carcinogens
    B. no discernable effect
    C. hypocholesterolemic properties
    D. antineoplastic properties affecting colorectal cancer
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Fermentation of fiber is considered to improve the proliferation of normal colon cells, thus inhibiting cancer, by increasing colon concentrations of _____.

    A. zinc
    B. iron
    C. calcium
    D. riboflavin
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Adequate Intake (AI) levels for the sum of dietary fiber and functional fiber established by the National Academy of Sciences Food and Nutrition Board is in the range of _____ .

    A. 50-60 g
    B. 70-90 g
    C. 20-40 g
    D. 10-15 g
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Physiological effects of gingko biloba include:

    A. alterations of neurotransmitter function in the central nervous system
    B. reduction of fatigue and improved stamina
    C. improved blood flow in cerebral and peripheral vascular circulation
    D. stimulation of the immune system
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Phytochemicals found mostly in soy beans and soy products are:

    A. flavonols
    B. isoflavones
    C. carotenoids
    D. isothiocyanates
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Upon ingestion in foods, glycoside conjugates are metabolized to produce:

    A. aglycones
    B. saponins
    C. hydroxyls
    D. free radicals
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Glucosinolates and isothiocyanates appear to have protective effects against cancer and are found in:

    A. cruciferous vegetables.
    B. citrus fruits
    C. berries
    D. soybeans
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Interactions have been reported between St. John's wort and:

    A. diuretics
    B. the monoamine axidase inhibitor phenelzine
    C. hypertensive medications
    D. oral contraceptives
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Standardization means that the herbal preparation as sold:

    A. is guaranteed safe
    B. is more efficacious than unstandardized preparations
    C. contains a stated percentage of a specific compound
    D. will not produce side effects
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Products that are regulated under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 include all of the following EXCEPT:

    A. food and non-prescription drugs
    B. amino acids
    C. herbal and botanical products
    D. multivitamin tablets
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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