IB 132 Mt2 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

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jeannette_ruiz
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IB 132 Mt2 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
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2010-03-30 07:41:46
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IB 132 Mt2 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
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IB 132 Mt2 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
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  1. The endocrine system is involved inregulating:
    • – homeostasis
    • – growth and development
    • – Reproduction
    • – metabolism
  2. The Endocrine and NervousSystems Compared
  3. The endocrine system is comprised of allglands or organs secreting hormones
    • Pancreas, adrenals, hypothalamus, kidneys,pituitary, thyroid, ovaries and testes
  4. Categories of Chemical Signals
    • Autocrine signals:
    • Paracrine signals:
    • Endocrine signals:
    • Pheromones:
    act on same cell that secretes them

    act on neighboring cells

    hormones carried by blood orother body fluids

    released into environment, act onanother individual
  5. 1. Communication by hormones
    The specificity of cellular response is dictated byexpression of the receptor on the target cell
  6. Hormones : definition
    • • Organic compounds
    • • Secreted from the cells that synthesize them
    • • Act on target cells remote from cell oforigin
    • • Small concentration, large effects
  7. 4. Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Endocrine Gland Axes
  8. HORMONES:
    Anterior Pituitary:
    GH
    TSH
    ACTH-->Kidney produces Corticosteroids
    FSH and LH-->Estrogen and Progesterone and Testostorone
    PROLACTIN-->Milk Production
    POSTERIOR PITUITARY:
    ADH-->Kidney water retention
    OXYTOCIN->Uterine contractions and milk letdown
  9. FEEDBACK AND HORMONES
    Short- and long-loopfeedback relationshipsbetween hypothalamic,pituitary, and third-glandHormones regulatehormonesynthesis and secretion.

    negative-feedback regulates the axis
  10. Gonads: Ovaries
    • • Female gonads
    • • Two compartments– Steroidogenic– Gametogenic
    • • Cyclic in function
    • • Hormones associated with gametematuration were co-opted over evolutionarytime to regulate sexual behaviors.
  11. • Male gonads
    • Two compartments– Steroidogenic– Gametogenic
    • • Static function
    • • Hormones associated with gametematuration were co-opted overevolutionary time to regulate sexualbehaviors.
  12. GROWTH HORMONE:Influences growth and metabolism:
    Stimulators and Inhibitors
  13. Stimulators of GH secretion include:
    • •growth hormone releasing hormone(GHRH)
    • •sleep
    • •exercise
    • •dietary proteins
    • Inhibitors of GH secretion include:
    • •somatostatin
    • •circulating concentrations of GH andIGF-1 (negative feedback)
    • •dietary carbohydrate
    • •glucocorticoids
  14. Gigantism -
    overproduction of GH before puberty
  15. Acromegaly -
    overproduction of GH after puberty
  16. Posterior Pituitary Hormones
    • • Oxytocin
    • – Milk let-down (e.g., baby crying)
    • – Uterine contractions (e.g., labor induction)
    • – Amnesic?
    • • Vasopressin (AKA antidiuretic hormone, ADH)
    • – Water balance
    • – Blood pressure
  17. Classes of Hormones:
    3
    (1) Monoamines (Amino Acids and derivatives)

    (2) Polypeptides

    (3) Steroids
  18. Hormones derived from Amino Acids:
    Epinephrine and Melatonin
  19. Hormones that are polypeptides
    • TRH (tripeptide)
    • ACTH (39 amino acids)
    • PTH (84 amino acids)
    • GH (191 with disulfide bonds)
    • FSH,
    • TSH,
    • LH
    • -are Glycoprotein
    • -Synthesized in the ER
    • -Transported to the Golgi complex
    • -Packaged
    • -secreted
  20. Hormones derived from Cholesterol: Steroids
    • Aldosterone
    • Testostorone
    • estradiol
    • Progesterone
  21. Controlling steroid synthesis
    • • Steroid hormones are synthesized and secreted only ondemand
    • • The rate of synthesis = rate of secretion
    • • Control is achieved by stimulation the “rate limiting enzyme”
    • • Uptake and availability of cholesterol is mandatory!
  22. Hormone Transport in Blood
  23. Hormones: mechanisms of actions
    • • Amine and peptide hormones: membranereceptors and second messenger
    • systems

    • • Steroid hormones and thyroxine: controllinggene expression
    • (via nuclear receptors)
  24. Oxytocin -
    the love hormone..

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