Nutrition_CH7_Metabolism

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PicOlio
ID:
124675
Filename:
Nutrition_CH7_Metabolism
Updated:
2011-12-20 19:49:54
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Integration Regulation Metabolism Impact Exercise Sport
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Human Nutrition CH 7 - Integration and Regulation of Metabolism and the Impact of Exercise and Sport
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  1. Acetyl CoA is the common molecule to which carbohydrates and most fats and leucine are catabolized. What represents the breakdown products of odd chain fatty acids and glucogenic amino acids?

    A. lipolysis; ketogenesis
    B. ketone bodies
    C. Krebs cycle intermediates
    D. glycogenin
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. What step in the Krebs cycle is associated with gluconeogenesis?

    A. citrate
    B. oxaloacetate
    C. succinyl CoA
    D. fumarate
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Citrate is a Krebs cycle intermediate that moves from the mitochondria into the cytoplast to become the initiator of:

    A. ketone bodies
    B. gluconeogenesis
    C. fatty acid synthesis
    D. protein synthesis
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Which cells primarily convert glucose into energy storage molecules during the fed state?

    A. liver
    B. skeletal muscle
    C. RBCs
    D. adipose tissue
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. In the human just after a meal, adipose tissue:

    A. synthesizes most of the triglycerides to be stored
    B. secretes insulin
    C. mobilizes fatty acids into the blood
    D. takes up triglycerides from chylomicrons and VLDL
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Which of the following amino acids is most used to create glucose during early fasting?

    A. alanine
    B. tyrosine
    C. lysine
    D. threonine
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. The lack of glucose 6-phosphatase causes glucose to be trapped:

    A. in the gut
    B. in the liver
    C. in the abdominal fat cells
    D. in the muscle
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. If you have not eaten anything for the 3 days, which part of the fed-fast cycle would you be in?

    A. fed state
    B. fasting state
    C. early fasting state
    D. starvation state
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. The chief substrate for gluconeogenesis during the fasting state is:

    A. lactate from red blood cells and muscle
    B. amino acids from muscle breakdown
    C. ketone bodies
    D. glycerol from fat mobilization
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. The fasting state is associated with a large loss of:

    A. blood glucose
    B. blood ketones
    C. energy
    D. urinary nitorgen
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. A shift in metabolism from gluconeogenesis to glycolysis occurs during the:

    A. fed state
    B. starvation state
    C. early fasting state
    D. fasting state
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. The fat derivatives that can be used by the brain for energy are:

    A. fatty acids
    B. lactates
    C. Krebs cycle intermediates
    D. ketone bodies
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Branched-chain amino acids are used for synthesis of dispensable amino acids and for protein synthesis primarily by the:

    A. heart
    B. muscle
    C. liver
    D. kidney
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. What two amino acids provide a disposal route for nitrogen produced from the catabolism of muscle amino acids?

    A. tryptophan and cysteine
    B. lactate and pyruvate
    C. tyrosine and phenylalanine
    D. alanine and glutamine
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. If your kidneys are not working efficiently, but your liver is working fine, you would expect to see:

    A. very dilute urine
    B. high blood urea nitrogen
    C. high levels of blood ammonia
    D. low blood urea nitrogen
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. What amino acid is formed by many tissues from the combination of ammonia and glutamate to shuttle excess nitrogen from catabolized amino acids to the liver?

    A. valine
    B. glycine
    C. serine
    D. glutamine
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. One regulatory role of the nervous system is to:

    A. remove metabolic waste products.
    B. carry hormonal messages to target organs.
    C. assess the body's status in relation to environment
    D. respond to chemicas by producing hormones
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. The GI hormones such as secretin and CCK that are secreted in response to glucose, amino acids, fatty acids and changes in acidity:

    A. stimulate gluconeogenesis by acting on the muscle to enhance release of alanine
    B. primarily stimulate muscle glycogenolysis
    C. amplify the response of pancreatic islet beta-cells to glucose
    D. stimulate liver glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Which hormone is primarily active only in prolonged starvation?

    A. growth hormone
    B. ACTH
    C. glucagon
    D. insulin
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Under the influence of glucagon, which of the following pathways is increased?

    A. glycogenolysis
    B. dephosphorylation of glycogen phosphorylase
    C. dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase
    D. glycogenesis
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Which of the following actions of insulin occurs within a few seconds?

    A. repression of synthesis of catabolic enzymes
    B. promotion of cell replication
    C. membrane changes for glucose transport
    D. inhibition of activity of catabolic enzymes
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. The primary role of insulin secretion is to direct energy metabolism during the:

    A. starvation state
    B. fed state
    C. fasting state
    D. early fasting state
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. After 40 days of starvation, what amount of energy needs of the brain are supplied by ketones?

    A. more than one-half
    B. about one-third
    C. about one-fourth
    D. up to one-eighth
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Ketones are the preferred source of energy during prolonged starvation in the:

    A. muscles.
    B. red blood cells
    C. brain
    D. adipose tissue
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. The intensity of a submaximal workload is expressed as a percentage of the:

    A. ATP-CP load
    B. lactic acid concentration
    C. VO2 max
    D. respiratory quotient
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. During intense exercise, which of the following contributes maximally to the amount of ATP used by working muscles?

    A. plasma fatty acids
    B. muscle glycogen
    C. blood glucose
    D. oxidation of amino acids
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. At rest, the body's primary energy source is:

    A. fatty acids
    B. amino acids
    C. lactate
    D. glucose
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Training enhances many factors which aid the athlete's ability to use oxygen, including:

    A. decreased carnitine acyltransferase
    B. increased number and size of mitochondria
    C. enhanced glucose uptake
    D. decreased activity of glycolytic enzymes
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Hyperglycemia can be attributed to a primary failure of the beta-cells of the pancreas to secrete insulin or to:

    A. failure of adipocytes to enhance insulin output
    B. low phosphate levels in the blood
    C. the secretion of too much insulin
    D. decreased glucose uptake by muscle and increased output by liver
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Dehydration can occur because of all of the following EXCEPT:

    A. ketonuria
    B. glucosuria
    C. excess sodium excretion
    D. excess sodium retention
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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