Physical Science Vocab

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Physical Science Vocab
2011-12-20 20:40:43
Physical Science Vocab

Physical Science Vocab
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  1. Distance
    how far an object moves
  2. Displacement
    distance and direction of an objects change in postion from the starting point
  3. Velocity
    the speed and direction of a moving object
  4. Instantaneous speed
    speed of an object at a given point in time; is constant for an object moving with constant speed and changes with the time for an object that is slowing down or speeding up
  5. Constant speed
    speed that stays the same
  6. Force
    a push or pull exerted on an object
  7. Inertia
    resistance of an object to a change in its motion
  8. Balanced force
    forces on an object that combine to give a zero net force and don't change the motion of the object
  9. Unbalanced force
    an unequal force on an object
  10. Net force
    sum of the forces that are acting on an object
  11. Acceleration
    rate of change of velocity; can be calculated by dividing the change in the velocity by the time it takes the change to occur
  12. Momentum
    property of a moving object that equals its mass times its velocity
  13. Sliding friction
    frictional force that opposes the motion of two surfaces sliding past each other
  14. Rolling friction
    when one object is rolling across another
  15. Static friction
    when neither object is moving
  16. Friction
    force that opposes the sliding motion between two touching surfaces
  17. Air resistance
    force that opposes the motion of objects that move through the air
  18. Centripetal force
    a net force that is directed toward the center of a curved or circular path
  19. Gravitational force
    the force of attraction between all masses in the universe
  20. Projectile
    any object that is propelled through space by the exertion of force
  21. Energy
    the capacity for work or vigorous activity
  22. Kinetic energy
    energy a moving object has because of its motion depends on the mass and speed of the object
  23. Gravitational potential energy
    energy stored by objects due to their position above Earth's surface; depends on the distance above Earth's surface and the object's mass
  24. Chemical potentian energy
    energy stored in chemical bonds
  25. Elastic potential energy
    energy stored when an object is compressed or stretched
  26. Mechanical advantage
    ratio of the output force exerted by a machine to the input force applied to the machine
  27. Work
    transfer of energy that occurs when a force makes an object move; measured in joules
  28. Power
    amount of work done or the amount of energy transferred divided by the time required to do the work or transfer the energy, measured in watts
  29. Machine
    device that makes doing work easier by increasing the force applied to an object, changing the direction of an applied force, or increasing the distance over which a force can be applied
  30. Simple machine
    machine that does work with only one movement ex. lever, pulley, wheel and axle, inclined plaine, screw and wedge
  31. Compound machine
    machine that is a combination of two or more simple machines
  32. Ideal machine
    the input work equals the output work
  33. Output force
    force applied by the machine
  34. Efficiancy of a machine
    a measure of how much of the work put into a machine is changed into useful output work by the machine
  35. Pulley
    a grooved wheel with a rope, chain, or cable running along the groove
  36. Wheel and axle
    a simple machine consisting of a shaft or axle rotate together
  37. Inclined plane
    a sloping surface such as a ramp that reduces the amount of force required to do work
  38. Screw
    an inclined plane wrapped in a spiral around a cylindrical post
  39. Wedge
    an inclined plane with one or two sloping sides
  40. Gear
    a wheel and axle with the wheel having teeth around its rim
  41. Electricity
    electric current used or regarded as a source of power
  42. Static electricity
    the accumulation of excess electric charge on an object
  43. Electrical conductor
    anything that carries or moves current
  44. Electrical insulator
    material that blocks the flow of electtric current across it
  45. Lightning
    flash of light in the sky caused by an electrical discharge
  46. Electroscope
    device for detecting the presence and determining the sign of electric charges by means of electrostatic attraction and repulsion, often between two pieces of gold leaf enclosed in a glass-walled chamber
  47. Electric current
    the net movement of electric charges in a single direction; measured in amperes
  48. Battery
    provides the voltage difference that is needed to keep current flowing in a circuit
  49. Dry cell battery
    a voltage-generating cell having an electrolyte in the form of moist paste
  50. Wet cell battery
    contains two connected plates made of different metals or metallic compounds in a conducting solution
  51. Charged by contact
    the process of transferring charge by touching or rubbing
  52. Charged by induction
    the rearrangement of electrons on a neutral object caused by a nearby charged object
  53. Electrical resistance
    the tendency for a material to oppose the flow of electrons changing electrical energy into thermal energy and light
  54. Series circuit
    the circuit has only one loop to flow through
  55. Parallel circuit
    contains two or more branches for current to move through
  56. Open circuit
    no curent flows through this circuit
  57. Closed circuit
    endless path for the flow of current
  58. Electrical fuse
    contains a small metal piece that melts if the current becomes too high
  59. Circuit breaker
    contains a pice of metal that bends when the current in it is so large that it gets hot
  60. Ohm's law
    the current in a circuit equals the voltage difference divided by the resistance; I=V/R
  61. Electrical power
    the rate at which electrical energy is converted to another form of energy
  62. Electrical energy
    energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor; measured in kilowatt hours
  63. Output force
    the force applied by the machine
  64. Lever
    a bar that is free to pivot or turn around a fixed point
  65. Newton's 3rd law
    When one object exerts a force on a second object the second one exerts a force on the first that is equal in strength and opposite in direction
  66. Newton's 2nd law
    the acceleration of an object is in the same direction as the net force on the object
  67. Newton's 1st law
    an object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force
  68. Law of conservation of energy
    states that energy can never be created or destroyed
  69. Law of conservation of charge
    states that charge can be transferred from one object to another but can't be created or destroyed
  70. Law of conservation of momentum
    states that momentum can be transferred from one object to another